FIGURE 3–1 Distribution of DOE’s budget by sector for its energy efficiency R&D programs (in thousands of dollars). Totals are $329,278,000 in 1978; $547,376,000 in 2000; and $7,282,952,000 for 1978 to 2000. SOURCE: OEE, 2000.

The amount of basic science performed by the energy efficiency program has been small; thus in FY 2000, Congress appropriated $10.9 million for basic science research with potential application in energy-efficient technologies. Thirteen teams led by universities were selected to perform scientific research on energy-efficient power generation for industrial and buildings systems or transportation. An additional $10.9 million was appropriated in FY 2001 by the Interior Appropriations Committee to continue this initiative (DOE, 2001).

Since the start of the energy efficiency RD&D technology programs in the 1970s, industry has been an active participant, performing research and, to a more limited extent, establishing the research agenda. Since the beginning of the ERDA programs, industry has usually cost-shared at least 20 percent to allow it to retain patent rights (P.L. 93–438, 1974). During the past 8 years, in major programs such as the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) and Industries of the Future (IOF),4 industry has taken an active role in establishing the technical goals, in jointly developing the research agenda, and in consistently cost sharing.


The energy efficiency (EE) R&D program is aimed at three sectors: buildings (both residential and commercial), industry (manufacturing and cross-cutting technologies), and transportation (primarily automotive and light- and heavy-duty trucks). Although the issues, problems, and solutions for energy efficiency may be different for each of the three end-use sectors, lessons learned from one sector are often applicable to all the sectors. In order to provide a comprehensive study of the energy efficiency program, 17 case studies were selected to illustrate the main components of the program, important examples of RD&D activities, and the range of benefits and costs that the energy efficiency program has yielded. The case studies cover only about 20 percent of the total EE R&D expenditures (see Table 3–2) over the 22-year period. As a result of the characteristics of the building and industry sectors and the type of programs DOE has sponsored, the case studies for the buildings sector account for about 5 percent of the total building budget and those for the industry sector, 13 percent of the total industry budget. The transportation case studies represent 38 percent of the transportation budget.

The buildings and industry programs tend to have many smaller projects (in the millions of dollars rather than tens of millions), so it was not possible to select a few larger projects


The Industries of the Future strategy creates partnership between industry, government, and supporting laboratories and institutions to accelerate technology research, development, and deployment. Led by the Department of Energy’s Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), the Industries of the Future strategy is being implemented in nine energy- and waste-intensive industries (OIT, 2001).

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