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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

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This report is funded in part by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Task order 56-DKNA-0-95111); Federal Emergency Management Agency (EMW-2001-SA-0051); National Aeronautic and Space Administration (W-24245); Pacific Gas & Electric; and EPRI (EP501 0000002689). The views expressed herein are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of NOAA or any of its subagencies, NASA, FEMA, PG&E, or EPRI.

Supported by the U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior, under assistance award No. 00HQAG0205. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the author and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the U.S. Government.

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No.CMS-9981962. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in the material are those of the author and do not reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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