the effectiveness of overwhelming force could not be verified in the 2 hours allotted for the landing. The synergism between the two techniques seems compelling.

In summary, it is suggested that an approach using a row of deeply penetrating, large, simultaneously detonated explosive weapons delivered in a line-charge analog could quickly clear a channel through the surf zone and mined beach areas with surprise or in an emergency using aircraft. Uncertainties are the crater performance for different types of bottoms and beaches, the final location and state (exploded or unexploded) of the affected mines and of the obstacles, the degree of difficulty the amphibious landing force would have at the end of the channel, the means and accuracy of delivery, and the penetrator design and performance. The addition of guinea-pig causeways to follow the overwhelming force and lead the landing force to the beach provides a complementary MCM to proof test the channel, verify the MCM effectiveness, and build the confidence of the forces. An extension of the line-charge analog approach might clear bottom, buried, and moored mines up to about 40-ft depth and a massive countermining strike might be able to clear the remaining deeper section of the approach lane.

Recommendations
  • Support the exploration of the explosive excavation of a channel through the surf zone up the beach and in VSW by tests, calculations, and simulations15 on cratering by deeply buried rows of charges of different sizes and depths.

  • Conduct tests of the mobility of tracked vehicles out of the end crater on the beach and of the ability of small explosives and of water-cannon apparatus to reduce the end crater slope.

  • Determine the feasibility and accuracy of B-52 delivery of large, terminally-guided penetrator weapons, and the possibility of A-6 delivery of clusters of 2,000-lb bombs.

  • Support the development of appropriate delivery methods.

  • Study accuracy and cost effectivenes of mine-bomb placement by different platform/guidance combinations.

  • Conduct an engineering design study of penetrator weapon options and the aerodynamic controls necessary to obtain accurate placement of the explosive and of the fuze modifications for synchronized detonation and GPS-controlled permissive action links.

  • Assess the probable status and distribution of mines and obstacles in and near the crater.

  • Study the geology of beaches that are likely to be targets for invasion and determine the effect of the geology on the operation of the penetrators.

  • Determine the hydrodynamic configuration required to penetrate the bottom in the 10 to 30 ft of water and to sufficient depth near and on the beach.

  • Study the feasibility and synergism of the guinea-pig causeways following the overwhelming force and develop appropriate causeways or conversion kits to make causeways from craft of opportunity.

  • Investigate the lethality of detonation of explosive patterns on the bottom (with time-fuze controls) against expected types of bottom and moored mines in depth regions characteristic of the approach lane.

15  

Dr. E.Tremba of DNA suggested that the Boeing high-g centrifuge be used to investigate the phenomena involved on a laboratory scale. See, e.g., Schmidt, R.M., K.A.Holsapple, and K.R. Housen. 1986. Gravity Effects in Cratering, DNA Technical Report TR-86-182, Defense Nuclear Agency, Washington, D.C., May 30.



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