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References and Bibliography

NOTE: Papers prepared for the Committee on National Statistics—marked by an asterisk (*)—are available from the committee, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20418.

Adams, J., and A. Burnam
1995 Federal block grants: What do statisticians have to contribute? In Window on Washington, Constance F. Citro, Ed. Chance 8(4): 40-42.

Barro, S.M.
1993 Federal Policy Options for Improving the Education of Low-Income Students. Volume III, Countering Inequity in School Finance. Santa Monica, CA : RAND .

Bixby, L.E.
1977 Statistical Data Requirements in Legislation. Report prepared for the Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. Washington, DC : National Academy Press .

Blumberg, L., J. Holahan, and M. Moon
1993 Options for Reforming the Medicaid Matching Formula. Washington, DC : The Urban Institute .

Break, G.F.
1980 Financing Government in a Federal System. Studies of Government Finance: Second Series. Washington, DC : The Brookings Institution .

Burnham, M.A., P. Reuter, J.L. Adams, A.R. Palmer, K.E. Model, J.E. Rolph, J.Z. Heilbrunn, G.N. Marshall, D. McCaffrey, S.L. Wenzel, and R.C. Kessler
1997 Review and Evaluation of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Block Grant Allotment Formula. RAND Drug Policy Research Center, MR-533-HHS. Santa Monica, CA : RAND .

Center for Governmental Research
1980 Formula Evaluation Project: Final Report. Report to the National Science Foundation. Rochester, NY : Center for Governmental Research .



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Page 70 References and Bibliography NOTE: Papers prepared for the Committee on National Statistics—marked by an asterisk (*)—are available from the committee, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20418. Adams, J., and A. Burnam 1995 Federal block grants: What do statisticians have to contribute? In Window on Washington, Constance F. Citro, Ed. Chance 8(4): 40-42. Barro, S.M. 1993 Federal Policy Options for Improving the Education of Low-Income Students. Volume III, Countering Inequity in School Finance. Santa Monica, CA : RAND . Bixby, L.E. 1977 Statistical Data Requirements in Legislation. Report prepared for the Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. Washington, DC : National Academy Press . Blumberg, L., J. Holahan, and M. Moon 1993 Options for Reforming the Medicaid Matching Formula. Washington, DC : The Urban Institute . Break, G.F. 1980 Financing Government in a Federal System. Studies of Government Finance: Second Series. Washington, DC : The Brookings Institution . Burnham, M.A., P. Reuter, J.L. Adams, A.R. Palmer, K.E. Model, J.E. Rolph, J.Z. Heilbrunn, G.N. Marshall, D. McCaffrey, S.L. Wenzel, and R.C. Kessler 1997 Review and Evaluation of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Block Grant Allotment Formula. RAND Drug Policy Research Center, MR-533-HHS. Santa Monica, CA : RAND . Center for Governmental Research 1980 Formula Evaluation Project: Final Report. Report to the National Science Foundation. Rochester, NY : Center for Governmental Research .

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Page 71 Center for Urban and Regional Study 1975 Alternative Formulas for General Revenue Sharing. Report to the National Science Foundation. Blacksburg, VA : Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University . Ellett, C. 1976 A study of data requirements for population-based formula grants. Statistical Reporter 77: 48-57. 1978 Analysis of the Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP) Formula, Volume I: Executive Summary. Annandale, VA : JWK International Corporation . Fay, R.E., and R.A. Herriot 1979 Estimates of income for small places: An empirical Bayes application of James-Stein procedures to census data. Journal of the American Statistical Association 78: 269-277. Ghosh, M., and J.N.K. Rao 1994 Small-area estimation: An appraisal. Statistical Science 8(1): 55-93. Goodnough, A. 2001 New York City is shortchanged in school aid, state judge rules. The New York Times, January 11. Maurice, A.J., and R.P. Nathan 1982 The census undercount: Effects on federal aid to cities. Urban Affairs Quarterly 17(3): 251-284. Moskowitz, J., S. Stullich, and B. Deng 1993 Targeting, Formula, and Resource Allocation Issues: Focusing Federal Funds Where the Needs Are Greatest. A Supplemental Volume to the National Assessment of the Chapter I Program. Washington, DC : U.S. Department of Education . Nathan, R. 1980 The politics of printouts: The use of official numbers to allocate federal grants-in-aid. Pp. 331-342 in The Politics of Numbers, W Alonso and P. Starr, Eds. New York : Russell Sage Foundation . National Research Council 1980 Estimating Population and Income of Small Areas. Panel on Small-Area Estimates of Income and Population, Committee on National Statistics. Washington, DC : National Academy Press . 1995 Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Panel on Poverty and Family Assistance Concepts, C.F. Citro and R.T. Michael, Eds., Committee on National Statistics. Washington, DC : National Academy Press . 1997 Small-Area Estimates of Children in Poverty, Interim Report I, Evaluation of 1993 County Estimates for Title I Allocations. Panel on Estimates of Poverty for Small Geographic Areas, C.F. Citro, M.L. Cohen, G. Kalton, and K.K. West, Eds., Committee on National Statistics. Washington, DC : National Academy Press . 1998 Small-Area Estimates of Children in Poverty, Interim Report 2, Evaluation of Revised 1993 County Estimates for Title I Allocations. Panel on Estimates of Poverty for Small Geographic Areas, C.F. Citro, M.L. Cohen, and G. Kalton, Eds., Committee on National Statistics. Washington, DC : National Academy Press . 1999a Small-Area Estimates of Children in Poverty, Interim Report 3, Evaluation of Revised 1995 County and School District Estimates for Title I Allocations. Panel on Estimates

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Page 72 of Poverty for Small Geographic Areas, C.F. Citro and G. Kalton, Eds., Committee on National Statistics. Washington, DC : National Academy Press . 1999b Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and Perspectives. Committee on Education Finance, H.F. Ladd, R. Chalk, and J.S. Hansen, Eds. Washington, DC : National Academy Press . 2000a Small-Area Income and Poverty Estimates: Priorities for 2000 and Beyond. Panel on Estimates of Poverty for Small Geographic Areas, C.F. Citro and G. Kalton, Eds., Committee on National Statistics. Washington, DC : National Academy Press . 2000b Small-Area Estimates of School-Age Children in Poverty: Evaluation of Current Methodology. Panel on Estimates of Poverty for Small Geographic Areas, C.F. Citro and G. Kalton, Eds., Committee on National Statistics. Washington, DC : National Academy Press . Orland, M.E. 1988 Relating school district resource needs and capacities to Chapter I allocations: Implications for more effective service targeting. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 10(1): 23-36. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP 2000 Effect of Census 2000 Undercount on Federal Funding to States and Local Areas, 2002-2012. Washington, DC : PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP . Schirm, A.L. 1995 State Estimates of Infants and Children Income Eligible for the WIC Program in 1992. Washington, DC : Mathematica Policy Research . Smith, W., and A. Parker * 2000 An Overview of Formulas for Allocation of Funds. Paper prepared for the Workshop on Formulas for Allocating Program Funds, Committee on National Statistics, April 26-27, National Research Council, Washington, DC. Spencer, B. 1980a Benefit-Cost Analysis of Data Used to Allocate Funds. New York : Springer . 1980b Implications of equity and accuracy for undercount adjustment: A decision-theoretic approach. Pp. 204-216 in Conference on Census Undercount: Proceedings of the 1980 Conference. Washington, DC : U.S. Census Bureau . 1982a Technical issues in allocation formula design. Public Administration Review 42: 524-529. 1982b Concerning dubious estimates of the effects of census undercount adjustment of federal aid to cities. Urban Affairs Quarterly 18: 145-148. 1985 Avoiding bias in estimates of the effect of data error on allocations of public funds. Evaluation Review 9: 511-518. Stanford Research Institute 1974 General Revenue Sharing Data Study. Menlo Park, CA : Stanford Research Institute . Straf, M. 1981 Revenue allocation by regression: National Health Service Appropriations for Teaching Hospitals. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A 144(1): 80-84. Stutzer, M. 1981 Parametric Properties of Tax Effort Revenue Sharing. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, Document SR-86.

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Page 73 U.S. General Accounting Office 1983 Changing Medicaid Formula Can Improve Distribution of Funds to States. GAO/GGD-83-27. Washington, DC : U.S. Government Printing Office . 1991 Formula Programs—Adjusted Census Data Would Redistribute Small Percentage of Federal Funds to States. GAO/GGD-92-12. Washington, DC : U.S. Government Printing Office . 1991 Medicaid—Alternatives for Improving the Distribution of Funds. GAO/HRD-91-66FS. Washington, DC : U.S. Government Printing Office . 1996 Federal Grants Design Could Help Federal Resources Go Further. AIMD-97-7. Washington, DC : U.S. Government Printing Office . 1997 School Finance—State Efforts to Reduce Funding Gaps Between Poor and Wealthy Districts. GAO/HEHS-97-31. Washington, DC : U.S. Government Printing Office . 1998 School Finance—State and Federal Efforts to Target Poor Students. GAO/HEHS-98-36. Washington, DC : U.S. Government Printing Office . 1999 Formula Grants: Effects of Adjusted Population Counts on Federal Funding to States. GAO/HEHS-99-69. Washington, DC : U.S. Government Printing Office . U.S. General Services Administration 1998 1998 Formula Report to the Congress. Washington, DC : U.S. General Services Administration . U.S. Office of Statistical Policy and Standards 1978 Report on Statistics for Allocation of Funds. Statistical Policy Working Paper 1. Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology, Subcommittee on Statistics for Allocation of Funds. Washington, DC : U.S. Department of Commerce . Zaslavsky, A., and A. Schirm * 2000 Interaction Between Survey Estimates and Federal Funding Formulae. Paper presented at the Workshop on Formulas for Allocating Program Funds, Committee on National Statistics, April 26-27, National Research Council. Washington, DC.

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