A MODIFIED BASELINE INCINERATION PROCESS FOR MUSTARD PROJECTILES AT PUEBLO CHEMICAL DEPOT

Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

Board on Army Science and Technology

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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A Modified Baseline Incineration Process for Mustard Projectiles at Pueblo Chemical Depot A MODIFIED BASELINE INCINERATION PROCESS FOR MUSTARD PROJECTILES AT PUEBLO CHEMICAL DEPOT Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program Board on Army Science and Technology Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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A Modified Baseline Incineration Process for Mustard Projectiles at Pueblo Chemical Depot NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This is a report of work supported by Contract DAAD19-01-C-0001 between the U.S. Army and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-07612-9 Limited copies are available from: Board on Army Science and Technology National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 (202) 334–3118 Additional copies are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Lockbox 285 Washington, DC 20055 (800) 624–6242 or (202) 334–3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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A Modified Baseline Incineration Process for Mustard Projectiles at Pueblo Chemical Depot THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm.A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. Wm.A.Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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A Modified Baseline Incineration Process for Mustard Projectiles at Pueblo Chemical Depot COMMITTEE ON REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE ARMY CHEMICAL STOCKPILE DISPOSAL PROGRAM PETER B.LEDERMAN, Chair, New Jersey Institute of Technology (retired), Newark CHARLES I.McGINNIS, Vice Chair, Consultant, Charlottesville, Virginia DAVID H.ARCHER, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania PIERO M.ARMENANTE, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark JERRY L.R.CHANDLER, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia JOHN J.COSTOLNICK, Exxon Chemical Company (retired), Houston, Texas FRANK P.CRIMI, Lockheed Martin (retired), Saratoga, California MICHAEL R.GREENBERG, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick DEBORAH L.GRUBBE, DuPont Company, Wilmington, Delaware DAVID A.HOECKE, Enercon Systems, Inc., Elyria, Ohio DAVID H.JOHNSON, ABS Consulting, Irvine, California GARY L.LAGE, ToxiLogics, Inc., Titusville, New Jersey JAMES F.MATHIS, Exxon Corporation (retired), Houston, Texas FREDERICK G.POHLAND, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ROBERT B.PUYEAR, Consultant, Chesterfield, Missouri CHARLES F.REINHARDT, DuPont Company (retired), Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania KENNETH F.REINSCHMIDT, Consultant, Littleton, Massachusetts W.LEIGH SHORT, URS Greiner Woodward-Clyde (retired), Mount Pleasant, South Carolina JEFFREY I.STEINFELD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge CHADWICK A.TOLMAN, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia Board on Army Science and Technology Liaison RICHARD A.CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), Charleston, West Virginia Staff DONALD L.SIEBENALER, Study Director HARRISON T.PANNELLA, Program Officer DANIEL E.J.TALMAGE, JR., Research Associate JEFFREY L.CHATELLIER, Senior Project Assistant

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A Modified Baseline Incineration Process for Mustard Projectiles at Pueblo Chemical Depot BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WILLIAM H.FORSTER, Chair, Northrop Grumman Corporation, Baltimore, Maryland JOHN E.MILLER, Vice Chair, Oracle Corporation, Reston, Virginia ROBERT L.CATTOI, Rockwell International (retired), Dallas, Texas RICHARD A.CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), Charleston, West Virginia GILBERT F.DECKER, Walt Disney Imagineering, Glendale, California PATRICK F.FLYNN, Cummins Engine Company, Inc. (retired), Columbus, Indiana HENRY J.HATCH, Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army (retired), Oakton, Virginia EDWARD J.HAUG, University of Iowa, Iowa City GERALD J.IAFRATE, North Carolina State University, Raleigh MIRIAM E.JOHN, California Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California DONALD R.KEITH, Cypress International (retired), Alexandria, Virginia CLARENCE W.KITCHENS, IIT Research Institute, Alexandria, Virginia KATHRYN V.LOGAN, Georgia Institute of Technology (professor emerita), Roswell, Georgia JOHN W.LYONS, U.S. Army Research Laboratory (retired), Ellicott City, Maryland JOHN H.MOXLEY III, Korn/Ferry International, Los Angeles, California STEWART D.PERSONICK, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania MILLARD F.ROSE, Radiance Technologies, Huntsville, Alabama GEORGE T.SINGLEY III, Hicks and Associates, Inc., McLean, Virginia CLARENCE G.THORNTON, Army Research Laboratories (retired), Colts Neck, New Jersey JOHN D.VENABLES, Venables and Associates, Towson, Maryland JOSEPH J.VERVIER, ENSCO, Inc., Indiatlantic, Florida Staff BRUCE A.BRAUN, Director MICHAEL A.CLARKE, Associate Director WILLIAM E.CAMPBELL, Administrative Coordinator CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate GWEN ROBY, Administrative Assistant DEANNA P.SPARGER, Senior Project Assistant

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A Modified Baseline Incineration Process for Mustard Projectiles at Pueblo Chemical Depot Preface The United States has maintained a stockpile of chemical warfare agents and munitions since World War I. In 1985, Public Law 99–145 mandated the expeditious destruction of M55 rockets containing chemical agents because of the chance they might self-ignite. The program was soon expanded into the Army’s Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), which was given the mission of disposing of the entire 31,496 tons of nerve and mustard agents in a chemical stockpile dispersed among nine storage sites, eight in the continental United States and one on Johnston Island (part of Johnston Atoll) in the Pacific Ocean southwest of Hawaii. The United States is a signatory to the Chemical Weapons Convention treaty, which requires that the entire stockpile be destroyed by April 29, 2007. The Army leadership has sought outside, unbiased advice on how best to dispose of the stockpile. In 1987, at the request of the Under Secretary of the Army, the National Research Council (NRC) established the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (Stockpile Committee) to provide scientific and technical advice and counsel on the CSDP. The committee has since produced 25 full-length and letter reports covering the evolution of the CSDP from the design and construction of the first incineration-based chemical agent disposal facility on Johnston Island in 1990 to the present. The stockpile at Johnston Island has now been completely eliminated, and the facility there is entering its closure phase. A second incineration-based facility has been operating for more than four and one-half years at Tooele, Utah, adjacent to the largest stockpile site. Similar facilities are being constructed at Anniston, Alabama; Pine Bluff, Arkansas; and Umatilla, Oregon. Although details differ at the five sites, the basic technology is the same (the baseline incineration system). At two other sites—Aberdeen, Maryland, and Newport, Indiana—alternative technologies to incineration are being implemented. Facilities for the final two sites— Pueblo, Colorado, and Blue Grass, Kentucky—are in the technology selection process. This report is concerned with the technology selection for the Pueblo site, where only munitions containing mustard agent are stored. The report assesses a modified baseline process, a slightly simplified version of the baseline incineration system that was used to dispose of mustard munitions on Johnston Island. A second NRC committee is reviewing two neutralization-based technologies for possible use at Pueblo. The evaluation in this report is intended to assist authorities making the selection. It should also help the public and other non-Army stakeholders understand the modified baseline process and make sound judgments about it. The committee is grateful for the considerable assistance of the Office of the Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization and its contractors, which provided a great deal of useful information. The committee also greatly appreciates the assistance and contributions of NRC staff members Donald L.Siebenaler, Harrison T.Pannella, Daniel E.J. Talmage, Jr., and Carol R.Arenberg. Peter B.Lederman, Chair Charles I.McGinnis, Vice Chair Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

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A Modified Baseline Incineration Process for Mustard Projectiles at Pueblo Chemical Depot Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: John H.Birely, independent consultant Richard C.Dart, Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center Harold B.Dellinger, Louisiana State University Gene H.Dyer, consultant, Bechtel (retired) Willard C.Gekler, independent consultant J.Robert Gibson, DuPont Company Todd A.Kimmell, Argonne National Laboratory Charles E.Kolb, Aerodyne Research, Inc. Kun-Chieh Lee, Union Carbide corporate fellow Douglas M.Medville, MITRE (retired) Kirk E.Newman, Naval Surface Warfare Center William R.Rhyne, H&R Technical Associates, Inc. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Hyla S.Napadensky (NAE), Napadensky Energetics, Inc. (retired), appointed by the NRC’s Report Review Committee, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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A Modified Baseline Incineration Process for Mustard Projectiles at Pueblo Chemical Depot Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   6     Background,   6     National Research Council Involvement,   7     Statement of Task,   7 2   EXPERIENCE AT JACADS WITH MUSTARD MUNITIONS   8     Baseline Incineration System,   8     Improved Processing of HD Munitions,   8     Comparison of the 1992 and 1999 Trial Burn Results,   9     Processing of 4.2-Inch HD Mortar Shells Through the MPF,   10     Observations Based on HD Operations at JACADS,   10     Findings and Recommendations,   12 3   THE MODIFIED BASELINE PROCESS   14     Introduction,   14     Description of the Modified Baseline Process,   14     Transport of Munitions,   14     Removal of Energetics,   14     Energetics Disposal,   16     Decontamination of Energetics,   17     Freezing of Projectiles That Contain Agent,   17     Opening of Munitions to Access Agent,   18     Processing of Agent-Containing Munitions in the Metal Parts Furnace,   18     Treatment of the Off-Gas from the Metal Parts Furnace,   19     Handling of Brine Generated in the Quench Tower,   20     Handling of Secondary Wastes,   20     Monitoring of Agent and Other Pollutants,   21     Infrastructure,   21     Overall Throughput,   21     Closure of the Facility,   22     Critical Decisions for PMCD and Pueblo,   23     Preproject Planning for a Modified Baseline Process,   23

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A Modified Baseline Incineration Process for Mustard Projectiles at Pueblo Chemical Depot 4   RISK, SAFETY, AND STAKEHOLDER ISSUES   26     Safety and Risk Considerations,   26     Phase 1 QRA for a Baseline System at Pueblo,   26     Other Risk Assessments,   27     Worker Safety and Training,   28     Stakeholder Contacts,   28     Pueblo Chemical Depot,   28     Emergency Management Plans,   29     Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment and the Working Integrated Project Team Process,   29     Citizens Advisory Commission,   30     Evaluation of Pueblo Stakeholder Relations,   30 5   FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   32     REFERENCES   36     APPENDIXES         A Description of Pueblo Chemical Depot Stockpile   41     B Reports by the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (Stockpile Committee)   44     C Biographical Sketches of Committee Members   46

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A Modified Baseline Incineration Process for Mustard Projectiles at Pueblo Chemical Depot List of Figures and Tables FIGURES 3–1   Pueblo modified baseline process,   16 A–1   105-mm howitzer projectile,   42 A–2   155-mm howitzer projectile,   42 A–3   4.2-inch mortar cartridge,   43 TABLES 2–1   Summary of 1992 Trial Burn Tests for the Treatment of HD Ton Containers in the MPF at JACADS,   9 2–2   Metal Emissions in 1992 Trial Burn Tests at JACADS on HD Ton Containers in the MPF,   10 2–3   Number of HD Items Destroyed at JACADS,   10 2–4   Results of the 1999 Trial Burn of Mustard-containing Projectiles at JACADS,   11 2–5   Comparison of Limits from the JACADS RCRA Permit and Results of 1992 and 1999 Trial Burns,   11 2–6   Comparison of Selected Emissions (including those exceeding permit limits) for JACADS Trial Burns,   12 3–1   Comparison of Major Features of the Baseline Incineration System and the Modified Baseline Process,   15 3–2   Summary of Materials to Be Processed in a Four-zone MPF at Pueblo,   19 3–3   MPF Design Throughput Rates for Processing Munitions,   22 4–1   Summary of Results of Phase 1 QRAs for Baseline Incineration Systems at Several Sites,   27 A–1   Pueblo Chemical Depot Munitions,   41

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A Modified Baseline Incineration Process for Mustard Projectiles at Pueblo Chemical Depot Acronyms ACAMS automatic continuous air monitoring system ACWA Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment BRA brine reduction area CAC Citizens Advisory Commission CDTF Chemical Demilitarization Training Facility CHB container handling building CII Construction Industry Institute CSDP Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program CSEPP Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program CWC Chemical Weapons Convention DAAMS depot area air monitoring system DFS deactivation furnace system DoD U.S. Department of Defense DPE demilitarization protective ensemble DPHE Department of Public Health and Environment (Colorado) DRE destruction and removal efficiency ECR explosive containment room EDS explosive destruction system EIS environmental impact statement EMC emergency management coordinator EPA Environmental Protection Agency GB a nerve agent HD distilled mustard: bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide HEPA high-efficiency particulate air HRA health risk assessment HT vesicant mixture: 60 percent bis(2-chloroethyl)-sulfide and 40 percent bis[2(2chloroethylthio)ethyl] ether JACADS Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System LIC liquid incinerator MACT maximum achievable control technology MAV modified ammunition van MDB munitions demilitarization building MDM multipurpose demilitarization machine MPF metal parts furnace NEPA National Environmental Policy Act NOI notice of intent NRC National Research Council OMB Office of Management and Budget ONC on-site container OVT operational verification testing PAS pollution abatement system PCD Pueblo Chemical Depot PFS PAS filter system PIC product of incomplete combustion PMACWA Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment PMCD Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization PMD projectile/mortar disassembly PUCDF Pueblo Chemical Agent Disposal Facility QRA quantitative risk assessment RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act SAIC Science Applications International Corporation SDS spent decontamination solution TOCDF Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility TSDF treatment, storage, and disposal facility

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A Modified Baseline Incineration Process for Mustard Projectiles at Pueblo Chemical Depot VX a nerve agent WIP work in progress WIPT working integrated project team 3X The 3X decontamination level refers to solids decontaminated to the point that the agent concentration in the headspace above the encapsulated solid does not exceed the health-based, eight-hour, time-weighted average limit for worker exposure. The limit for HD is 3.0 μg per cubic meter of air. Materials classified as 3X may be handled by qualified plant workers using appropriate procedures but may not be released to the environment or sold for general public reuse. In specific cases in which approval has been granted, a 3X material may be shipped to an approved hazardous waste treatment facility for disposal in a landfill or for further treatment. 5X The use of 5X indicates that an item has been decontaminated completely of the indicated agent and may be released for general use or sold to the general public in accordance with all applicable federal, state, and local regulations. An item is decontaminated completely when the item has been subjected to procedures that are known to completely degrade the agent molecule, or when analyses, submitted through Army channels for approval by the Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board, have shown that the total quantity of agent is less than the minimal health effects dosage as determined by the Surgeon General. A 5X condition must be certified by the commander or designated representative. One approved method is heating the item to 538°C (1,000°F) for 15 minutes. This is considered sufficient to destroy chemical agent molecules.

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