References

Belcher, L. 2000. PMACWA Hydrolysis at Pantex. Briefing by L.Belcher, Department of Energy BWXT Pantex Plant, to the Hydrolysis Review Meeting, Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Kingsport, Tenn., October 31.

Bishop, R.L. 2000. Bench-Scale Base Hydrolysis. Briefing by R.L.Bishop, High Explosive Science and Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons, Phase II, National Research Council, Woods Hole, Mass., October 19.

Bishop, R.L. 2001. Briefing by R.L.Bishop, High Explosive Science and Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons, Phase II, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., February 8 .

Bishop, R.L., R.L.Flesner, S.A.Larson, and D.A.Bell. 2000. Base hydrolysis of TNT-based explosives. Journal of Energetic Materials 18(4): 275–288.

Bonnett, P.C. 2000. Test Plan Requirements: Characterization of an Energetic Hydrolysis Reactor System at Holston Army Ammunition Plant, July 12. Picatinny Arsenal, N.J.: U.S. Army TACOM-ARDEC.

Bonnett, P.C. 2001. Energetics Hydrolysis, Tests in Progress. Briefing by P.C.Bonnett, Engineer, U.S. Army TACOM-ARDEC, to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons, Phase II, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., February 8.

Burns and Roe. 1999. Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Program Final Report, June. Oradell, N.J.: Burns and Roe Enterprises, Inc.


Crooker, P.J., K.S.Ahluwalia, and Z. Fan. 2000. Final results of shipboard hydrothermal oxidation with a transpiring wall reactor. Paper # 15A-2 in Proceedings of the Conference on Incineration and Thermal Treatment Technologies (IT-3), Portland, Ore., May 8–12. Irvine, Calif.: University of California, Department of Environmental Health and Safety.


Dobratz, B.M. 1981. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Explosives Handbook: Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants. Livermore, Calif.: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

DOD (Department of Defense). 1993. Military Standard 882C: Standard Practice for System Safety Program Requirements, January. Washington, D.C.: DOD.

DOD. 1997. Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Program Annual Report to Congress, December . Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment.

DOD. 1998. Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Program Annual Report to Congress, December. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment.

DOD. 1999. Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Program Supplemental Report to Congress, September. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment.

DOD. 2000. Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Program Annual Report to Congress, December. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment.


Elliott, J.P., D.A.Hazlebeck, D.W.Ordway, A.J.Roberts, and M.H. Spritzer. 2000. Update on hydrothermal oxidation developments on DARPA/ONR and Air Force projects at General Atomics. Paper # 15A-1 in Proceedings of the Conference on Incineration and Thermal Treatment Technologies (IT-3), Portland, Ore., May 8–12. Irvine, Calif.: University of California, Department of Environmental Health and Safety.

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustor Facilities. EPA 530-D-98–001B, July. Washington, D.C.: EPA.


Garrison, M.M. 1994. Conventional weapons utilization in Ukraine and Belarus: Recovery-reuse and conversion. Proceedings of the 2nd Demilitarization Symposium, Arlington, Va., May 23–25. Arlington, Va.: National Defense Industrial Association.

General Atomics. 1997. Supercritical Water Oxidation Corrosion Studies: Technical Report , Vols. 1 and 2. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment.

General Atomics. 1999a. Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) Draft Test Technical Report, June 30. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment.

General Atomics. 1999b. Responses to PMACWA Questions and Clarification Request: General Atomics Final Technical Report. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment.

General Atomics. 2000a. ACWA Engineering Design Study, Final GAS Full-Scale Preliminary Design Engineering Package, October 27. San Diego, Calif.: General Atomics, Inc.

General Atomics. 2000b. Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA), Engineering Design Study Plan, May 25. San Diego, Calif.: General Atomics, Inc.

General Atomics. 2000c. Briefing package, General Atomics Total Solution Design Package Review Meeting, Arthur D.Little, Inc., Cambridge, Mass., August 17–18.

General Atomics. 2000d. Briefing package presented to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons, Phase II. Parsons Corporation, Pasadena, Calif., October 9–10.

General Atomics. 2000e. Briefing package presented to the Supercritical Water Oxidation In-Process Review Meeting, Program Manager for



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Analysis of Engineering Design Studies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons at Pueblo Chemical Depot References Belcher, L. 2000. PMACWA Hydrolysis at Pantex. Briefing by L.Belcher, Department of Energy BWXT Pantex Plant, to the Hydrolysis Review Meeting, Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Kingsport, Tenn., October 31. Bishop, R.L. 2000. Bench-Scale Base Hydrolysis. Briefing by R.L.Bishop, High Explosive Science and Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons, Phase II, National Research Council, Woods Hole, Mass., October 19. Bishop, R.L. 2001. Briefing by R.L.Bishop, High Explosive Science and Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons, Phase II, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., February 8 . Bishop, R.L., R.L.Flesner, S.A.Larson, and D.A.Bell. 2000. Base hydrolysis of TNT-based explosives. Journal of Energetic Materials 18(4): 275–288. Bonnett, P.C. 2000. Test Plan Requirements: Characterization of an Energetic Hydrolysis Reactor System at Holston Army Ammunition Plant, July 12. Picatinny Arsenal, N.J.: U.S. Army TACOM-ARDEC. Bonnett, P.C. 2001. Energetics Hydrolysis, Tests in Progress. Briefing by P.C.Bonnett, Engineer, U.S. Army TACOM-ARDEC, to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons, Phase II, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., February 8. Burns and Roe. 1999. Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Program Final Report, June. Oradell, N.J.: Burns and Roe Enterprises, Inc. Crooker, P.J., K.S.Ahluwalia, and Z. Fan. 2000. Final results of shipboard hydrothermal oxidation with a transpiring wall reactor. Paper # 15A-2 in Proceedings of the Conference on Incineration and Thermal Treatment Technologies (IT-3), Portland, Ore., May 8–12. Irvine, Calif.: University of California, Department of Environmental Health and Safety. Dobratz, B.M. 1981. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Explosives Handbook: Properties of Chemical Explosives and Explosive Simulants. Livermore, Calif.: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. DOD (Department of Defense). 1993. Military Standard 882C: Standard Practice for System Safety Program Requirements, January. Washington, D.C.: DOD. DOD. 1997. Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Program Annual Report to Congress, December . Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment. DOD. 1998. Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Program Annual Report to Congress, December. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment. DOD. 1999. Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Program Supplemental Report to Congress, September. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment. DOD. 2000. Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Program Annual Report to Congress, December. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment. Elliott, J.P., D.A.Hazlebeck, D.W.Ordway, A.J.Roberts, and M.H. Spritzer. 2000. Update on hydrothermal oxidation developments on DARPA/ONR and Air Force projects at General Atomics. Paper # 15A-1 in Proceedings of the Conference on Incineration and Thermal Treatment Technologies (IT-3), Portland, Ore., May 8–12. Irvine, Calif.: University of California, Department of Environmental Health and Safety. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustor Facilities. EPA 530-D-98–001B, July. Washington, D.C.: EPA. Garrison, M.M. 1994. Conventional weapons utilization in Ukraine and Belarus: Recovery-reuse and conversion. Proceedings of the 2nd Demilitarization Symposium, Arlington, Va., May 23–25. Arlington, Va.: National Defense Industrial Association. General Atomics. 1997. Supercritical Water Oxidation Corrosion Studies: Technical Report , Vols. 1 and 2. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment. General Atomics. 1999a. Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) Draft Test Technical Report, June 30. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment. General Atomics. 1999b. Responses to PMACWA Questions and Clarification Request: General Atomics Final Technical Report. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment. General Atomics. 2000a. ACWA Engineering Design Study, Final GAS Full-Scale Preliminary Design Engineering Package, October 27. San Diego, Calif.: General Atomics, Inc. General Atomics. 2000b. Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA), Engineering Design Study Plan, May 25. San Diego, Calif.: General Atomics, Inc. General Atomics. 2000c. Briefing package, General Atomics Total Solution Design Package Review Meeting, Arthur D.Little, Inc., Cambridge, Mass., August 17–18. General Atomics. 2000d. Briefing package presented to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons, Phase II. Parsons Corporation, Pasadena, Calif., October 9–10. General Atomics. 2000e. Briefing package presented to the Supercritical Water Oxidation In-Process Review Meeting, Program Manager for

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Analysis of Engineering Design Studies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons at Pueblo Chemical Depot Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md., September 6. General Atomics. 2000f. Briefing package presented to the Supercritical Water Oxidation In-Process Review Meeting, Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md., December 7. General Atomics. 2000g. Briefing package presented to the EDS Design-Review Meeting, Parsons Corporation, Pasadena, Calif., November 8– 10. General Atomics. 2000h. Final GATS Preliminary Hazards Analysis, October. San Diego, Calif.: General Atomics, Inc. General Atomics. 2001. Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA), Engineering Design Studies, Draft Test Report, February 10. San Diego, Calif.: General Atomics, Inc. Gibbs, T.R., and A.Popolato. 1980. LASL Explosive Property Data. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press. Goldstein, R. 1999. An Overview of the Army’s Demilitarization Technology Research and Development Program for Conventional Ammunition, Proceedings of 5th Life Cycles of Energetic Materials Conference, Orlando, Fla., September 26–29. Griffith, J.W. 2000. The use of hydrothermal oxidation in the treatment of municipal wastewater sludge. Paper # 15A-3 in Proceedings of the Conference on Incineration and Thermal Treatment Technologies (IT-3), Portland, Ore., May 8–12. Irvine, Calif.: University of California, Department of Environmental Health and Safety. Hong, G. 2001. ACWA EDS SCWO Testing Progress Update. Briefing by General Atomics, Inc., to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons, Phase II, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., February 8. JOCG (Joint Ordnance Commanders Group). 2000. Optimization of DOD Open Burning/Open Detonation Units: Phase II, Analysis and Closure Recommendations, March. Rock Island, Ill.: U.S. Army Operations Support Command. Kaye, S.M., and H.L.Herman. 1980. Encyclopedia of Explosives and Related Items. PATR 2700, Vol. 9. Dover, N.J.: U.S. Army Armament Research and Development Command. Macdonald, D, and L.Kriksunov. 2001. Probing the Chemical and Electrochemical Properties of SCWO Systems, Prepublication copy. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Center for Electrochemical Science and Technology. Machacek, O. 2000. Application of Demilitarized Gun and Rocket Propellant in Commercial Explosives. NATO Science Series. II. Mathematics, Physics, and Chemistry—Vol. 3. O.Machacek, ed. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Marinkas, A., C.Hu, and C.Smith. 1998. Use of recycled RDX for production of RDX-based explosives. Proceedings of 4th Life Cycles of Energetic Materials Conference, Fullerton, Calif., March 29–April 1. McCloskey, G. 2000. JACADS Closure Status. Briefing by Gary McCloskey, site project manager, PMCD, to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, Anniston Chemical Disposal Facility, Anniston, Ala., March. Mitchell, W.J. 1998. State of the Science and Research Needs in the Characterization and Minimization of the Emissions for Ordnance Use and Disposal Activities. Available online at <http://www.enviro-engrs.org/Ordnance.pdf> (March 8, 2001). Myler, C. 2000. ABCDF Updates and Issues. Briefing by Craig Myler, Bechtel, to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., June 22. NRC (National Research Council). 1991. Demilitarization of Chemical Weapons by Cryofracture: A Technical Assessment. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1993. Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1996. Review and Evaluation of Alternative Chemical Disposal Technologies. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1999. Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2000. Evaluation of Demonstration Test Results of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2001. SCWO EST. Letter report to Dr. Hank Dubin, director, Assessments and Evaluation, Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics and Technology (SAAL), January 29. Washington, D.C.: Board on Army Science and Technology. Newman K.E., K.T.Kenar, S.J.Rosenberg, and Y.B.Yim. 1997. Feasibility of Reclamation and Reuse of RDX for Joint Mine Countermeasure Programs (IHTR 2036), October 31. Indian Head, Md.: Naval Surface Warfare Center. Newman, K. 1999. A Review of Alkaline Hydrolysis of Energetic Materials: Is It Applicable to Demilitarization of Ordnance? IHTR 2167, April 30. Indian Head, Md.: Naval Surface Warfare Center. Parsons. 2000a. Briefing package presented to EDS Design Review Meeting, Parsons Corporation, Pasadena, Calif., November 8–9. Parsons. 2000b. Project Design Note (T)—002, May 18. Pasadena, Calif.: Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group. Parsons. 2000c. Process Hazardous Analysis: Process Analysis, October 23. Pasadena, Calif.: Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group. Parsons. 2000d. Client Review Submittal, ACWA EDS WHEAT Design Basis, October. Pasadena, Calif.: Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group. Parsons. 2000e. Assessment of Technologies for Assembled Chemical Weapon Demilitarization, EDS Test Report: Interim Report 3.2, Immobilized Cell Bioreactor (ICB), December 13. Pasadena, Calif.: Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group. Parsons. 2000f. Project Design Note (T)—005, June 28. Pasadena, Calif.: Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group. Parsons. 2000g. Assessment of Technologies for Assembled Chemical Weapon Demilitarization, EDS Test Report: Interim Report 3.3, Catalytic Oxidation (CATOX), December 13. Pasadena, Calif.: Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group. Parsons-AlliedSignal. 1999. Assessment of Technologies for Assembled Chemical Weapons Demilitarization Demonstration Test. Final Report, July 1. Pasadena, Calif.: Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group. PMACWA (Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment). 2000. SCWO EST Site Daily Update, December 2. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment. PMCD (Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization). 1996. PMCD Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Risk Management Program Requirements, May. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. PMCD. 1997. PMCD Guide to Risk Management Policy and Activities. Rev. 0, May. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. Spritzer, M.H. 2000a. GATS Engineering Design Package. Briefing by M.H.Spritzer, manager, Demilitarization Technology, General Atomics, Inc., to the General Atomics Total Solution Design Package Review Meeting, Arthur D.Little, Inc., Cambridge, Mass., August 14– 15, 2000. Spritzer, M.H. 2000b. Responses to questions on General Atomics design. Briefing by M.H.Spritzer, manager, Demilitarization Technology, General Atomics, Inc., to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons, Phase II, Parsons Corporation, Pasadena, Calif., November 26–28, 2000. Susman, S. 2000a. Engineering Design Study. Briefing by S.Susman, mechanical engineer, ACWA Technical Team, Program Manager for

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Analysis of Engineering Design Studies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons at Pueblo Chemical Depot Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment, to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons, Phase II, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., August 9. Susman, S. 2000b. Engineering Design Study Status. Briefing by S.Susman, mechanical engineer, ACWA Technical Team, Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment, to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons, Phase II, National Research Council, Woods Hole, Mass., October 19. SWEC (Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation). 1996. Supercritical Water Oxidation Data Acquisition Testing, Final Report. Vol. 1, Phase I DOE Testing for U.S. DOE Idaho Operations Office and Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program. Baton Rouge, La.: Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation. U.S. Army. 1988. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1997. Assessment of Technologies for Assembled Chemical Weapons Demilitarization. Solicitation Number DAAM01–97-R-0031, July 28. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Command. U.S. Army. 1998. Fact Sheet: Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Byproducts and Waste Streams. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. Wojciechowski, P. 2000. NECDF Updates and Issues. Briefing by Paul Wojciechowski, Deputy NECDF Manager, Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group, Inc., to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., June 22.