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3 Current D&D Science and Technology Programs

This chapter provides an overview of U.S. and international science and technology programs directed at nuclear facility deactivation and decommissioning (D&D). It is intended to provide information for readers not familiar with D&D programs and particularly researchers who may be interested in submitting a proposal to the Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program (DOE-EMSP).

The chapter also responds to the third part of the committee's charge “In recommending specific areas of research, the committee should take into account, where possible, the agendas of other D&D-related research programs.” The committee found that the EMSP is unique in its targeting of research funding toward DOE's D&D challenges. However, some programs funded by other U.S. agencies and industries are relevant to D&D, and they may provide good leads for new or improved D&D approaches. In addition, there are opportunities for international collaborations in the area of nuclear facility D&D.

U.S. Department of Energy Programs

The DOE's site cleanup program is one of the largest environmental cleanup efforts in world history. The program is estimated to cost over $100 billion, with some estimates exceeding $200 billion, and to continue for decades (DOE, 1999c, 2000d). To deal with this task DOE established its Office of Environmental Management (EM) in November 1989. The mission of the EM program is to bring DOE sites into compliance with all applicable regulations while minimizing risks to the environment and human health and safety posed by cleanup operations.

EM's current approach to site cleanup is to make the maximum use of existing and proven technologies to achieve as much cleanup as practicable in the shortest time. The goal of EM's Paths to Closure, ini-



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Page 33 3 Current D&D Science and Technology Programs This chapter provides an overview of U.S. and international science and technology programs directed at nuclear facility deactivation and decommissioning (D&D). It is intended to provide information for readers not familiar with D&D programs and particularly researchers who may be interested in submitting a proposal to the Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program (DOE-EMSP). The chapter also responds to the third part of the committee's charge “In recommending specific areas of research, the committee should take into account, where possible, the agendas of other D&D-related research programs.” The committee found that the EMSP is unique in its targeting of research funding toward DOE's D&D challenges. However, some programs funded by other U.S. agencies and industries are relevant to D&D, and they may provide good leads for new or improved D&D approaches. In addition, there are opportunities for international collaborations in the area of nuclear facility D&D. U.S. Department of Energy Programs The DOE's site cleanup program is one of the largest environmental cleanup efforts in world history. The program is estimated to cost over $100 billion, with some estimates exceeding $200 billion, and to continue for decades (DOE, 1999c, 2000d). To deal with this task DOE established its Office of Environmental Management (EM) in November 1989. The mission of the EM program is to bring DOE sites into compliance with all applicable regulations while minimizing risks to the environment and human health and safety posed by cleanup operations. EM's current approach to site cleanup is to make the maximum use of existing and proven technologies to achieve as much cleanup as practicable in the shortest time. The goal of EM's Paths to Closure, ini-

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Page 34tially stated in 1996, was to clean up 90 percent of its sites within the next ten years (DOE, 1998a). DOE's recent Status Report on Paths to Closure reiterates the goal to “close as many sites or portions of sites as possible by 2006” (DOE, 2000d, p. 2). The status report notes significant accomplishments and progress at most DOE sites. Presentations to the committee as well as its site tours provided an overview of completed D&D work and work in progress. The Paths to Closure approach reduces DOE's fixed costs of maintaining infrastructure of a site as rapidly as possible and provides evidence of progress in the cleanup program. DOE recognizes that the more intractable and expensive cleanup tasks are postponed until well in the future. This provides both the time and incentive to improve current technologies or develop new ways to address these more difficult challenges. Specifically for facility D&D, DOE estimates that about 80 percent of the costs will be incurred after 2006 (Hart, 2000). The Office of Science and Technology (OST) is the EM division charged with developing or finding new technologies to assist the cleanup mission. Research and development investments by OST have the objectives to meet the high-priority needs identified by the cleanup project managers, reduce the cost of EM's costliest cleanup projects, reduce the technological and programmatic risk of completing major cleanup projects on time and within budget, and accelerate and increase technology deployments (DOE, 2000e). To identify technology needs, OST has formed a site technology coordinating group (STCG) at each major DOE-EM site to interact with local contractor personnel and others. Each group includes senior managers from the site DOE office, site contractors, and national laboratory personnel. The STCGs are responsible for developing and prioritizing a list of site problems and technology needs based on environmental management issues relevant to a specific site. Each STCG evaluates and prioritizes technology needs according to a set of criteria established by the STCG (NRC, 1999e). The committee's suggestions for improving the process for identifying site needs are given in Chapter 5. OST has also created a gate system as a means of managing its technology development program (Boyd, 2000). Projects originating from basic research begin at gate 1, and if successful, continue through applied research, development, demonstration, and eventually, deployment. This gate concept is shown in Figure 3.1, which also depicts the mixture of personnel involved at each gate, beginning with basic researchers and ending primarily with site contractors and industries.

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Page 35 ~ enlarge ~ FIGURE 3.1 The DOE Office of Science and Technology uses a gate system that begins with basic research and continues through deployment of new technologies. Source: DOE. There are two major programs within OST that are designed to bring new technologies through the gate system. The Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) is intended to provide mission-driven research, which has elements of both basic (gate 1) and applied (gate 2) research. The OST focus areas are primarily responsible for developing, demonstrating, and deploying new technologies (gates 3 through 6). The EMSP and focus areas are described in the next two sections of this report. The Environmental Management Science Program The EMSP is a collaborative partnership among the DOE Office of Science, OST, and the Idaho Operations Office 1 to sponsor basic environmental and waste-management-related research (see Figure 3.2). Research supported by the EMSP is expected to have relevance to EM's most challenging technical problems. Results are expected to lead to new knowledge and technologies that reduce the costs, schedule, and risks associated with DOE's site cleanup program (DOE, 1998a, 2000d). 1The Idaho Operations Office administers EMSP grants that have been awarded.

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Page 36 ~ enlarge ~ FIGURE 3.2 Department of Energy organizational chart showing the offices that comprise the Environmental Management Science Program. The EMSP was established in response to a mandate from Congress in the fiscal year 1996 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act. Congress directed DOE to “provide sufficient attention and resources to longer-term basic science research which needs to be done to ultimately reduce cleanup costs, . . . develop a program that takes advantage of laboratory and university expertise, and . . . seek new and innovative cleanup methods to replace current conventional approaches which are often costly and ineffective” (DOE, 2000g, p.1). The key EMSP activities include identifying and prioritizing research needs, developing proposal solicitations, selecting research projects, managing its research portfolio, funding the selected research, and integrating that research into technology development projects. Figure 3.3 depicts the overall process the EMSP uses to select research projects for funding. EMSP research needs are identified through a variety of inputs, including the focus areas, the SCTGs, and site cleanup managers. External evaluations, such as this report and others from the National Academies, are also used by the EMSP for writing its solicitations and evaluating proposals. The EMSP's annual solicitations usually target needs in one or two of OST's focus areas. For example, this committee's interim report (see Appendix C) and the present report were both requested to assist the EMSP in its Fiscal Year 2001 call for proposals in the area of D&D. Successful proposals are usually awarded for three years, so that the selection/award process for a given focus area repeats in approximately three-year cycles. If a large number of proposals are expected, scientists seeking awards are encouraged to submit a brief pre-proposal for evalu

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Page 37 ~ enlarge ~ FIGURE 3.3 Selection of research proposals by the EMSP includes review for scientific merit and relevance to EM needs. Research needs are identified from a number of inputs. Source: DOE. ation. Promising research proposals can therefore be identified early in the process. Full proposals undergo a two-step review. The first is for scientific merit, and it is conducted by an independent peer review panel under the auspices of the DOE Office of Science. The second is for relevance to EM needs. The overall process is thus intended to select proposals that are both scientifically sound and that stand a good chance of leading to improved technologies for application in the EM program. Table 3.1 summarizes EMSP proposals in the D&D area that were selected for funding in the previous two calls for D&D proposals. For the 2001 call, 54 D&D-related proposals were submitted. In view of the EMSP's congressional charter and the future D&D challenges described in Chapter 2, the committee recommends that: The EMSP should focus on long-range basic research targeted on broad (site wide) or major (essential to one or a few sites) D&D needs. Research projects should address significant long-term problems to advance the state of knowledge well beyond the next decade. This approach maintains the EMSP long-term mission. Nevertheless, opportunities for research that provides high potential payoff in addressing urgent near-term needs may arise. As a practical matter, the EMSP may well encounter a range of research opportunities that span short- and long-term needs as well as provide for contingent approaches for D&D.

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Page 38 TABLE 3.1 Environmental Management Science Program Projects Project Title Funding Synthesis of New Water-Soluble Metal-Binding Polymers: Combinatorial Chemistry Approach $1,120,000 Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces $1,212,001 Advanced Sensing and Control Techniques to Facilitate Semi-Autonomous Decommissioning $870,733 In-Situ Spectro-Electrochemical Studies of Radionuclide Contaminated Surface Films on Metals and the Mechanism of Their Formation and Dissolution $1,005,000 Modeling of Diffusion of Plutonium in Other Metals and of Gaseous Species in Plutonium-Based Systems $435,000 Development of Monitoring and Diagnostic Methods for Robots Used in Remediation of Waste Sites $402,782 Removal of Radioactive Cations and Anions from Polluted Water Using Ligand-Modified Colloid-Enhanced Ultrafiltration $538,997 Waste Volume Reduction Using Surface Characterization and Decontamination by Laser Ablation $789,999 Optimization of Thermochemical, Kinetic, and Electrochemical Factors Governing Partitioning of Radionuclides: Melt Decontamination of Radioactively Contaminated Stainless Steel $1,200,000 Micelle Formation and Surface Interactions in Supercritical CO2: Fundamental Studies for the Extraction of Actinides from Contaminated Surfaces $960,000 Decontamination of Radionuclides from Concrete During and After Thermal Treatment $815,720 “Green” Biopolymers for Improved Decontamination of Metals from Surfaces:Sorptive Characterization and Costing Properties $900,000 Improved Decontamination: Interfacial,Transport, and Chemical Properties of Aqueous Surfactant Cleaners $570,000 Microbially Promoted Solubilization of Steel Corrosion Products and Fate of Associated Actinides $1,406,000 Mechanisms of Radionuclide-Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Interactions for Decontamination of Metallic Surfaces $1,150,000 Contaminant-Organic Complexes,Their Structure and Energetics in Surface Decontamination $1,241,950 Decontamination and Decommissioning of PCB Sites at DOE: Extraction, Electrokinetics,and Hydrothermal Oxidation $979,808 Metal Ion Analysis Using Near-Infrared Dyes and the “Laboratory-on-a-Chip” $470,770 Development of Novel, Simple Multianalyte Sensors for Remote Environmental Analysis $650,000 Real-Time Identification and Characterization of Asbestos and Concrete Materials with Radioactive Contamination $599,687 Three-Dimensional Positron-Sensitive Germanium Detectors $750,000 Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces n/a The D&D Focus Area OST has organized five focus areas to ensure that its efforts efficiently address EM's most urgent technology needs. These include: deactivation and decommissioning, high-level waste tanks, subsurface contaminants,

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Page 39 transuranic and mixed waste, and nuclear materials. The D&D focus area (DDFA) was established by OST to ensure that adequate technologies are available to support EM's D&D task. In addition to the buildings themselves, the task will include decontamination of the metal and concrete within those buildings and disposal of some 180,000 metric tons of scrap metal and over 27 million tons of concrete. Most presentations to the committee during its site visits expressed the view that for the D&D task, unlike tasks addressed by the other focus areas, sufficient baseline technologies exist—that there are no substantial technology gaps. However, EM also understands that many baseline D&D technologies are labor intensive, time consuming, expensive, and involve major risks of worker exposure to radioactive and other hazardous materials. In addition, many baseline technologies generate secondary wastes (waste generated by the cleanup operation itself) in relatively large volumes. Some of these secondary wastes are difficult to handle, process, and dispose (NRC, 1998b, 1999b). The DDFA is charged with providing new technologies that are significantly better than the available baseline technologies 2 in terms of cost, speed, safety, or waste reduction. It therefore develops, demonstrates, and seeks to deploy new technologies that meet one or more of these criteria. A key function for the DDFA is demonstration of promising new technologies to end users—the contractors who actually perform the D&D work. The DDFA conducts technology demonstrations in DOE facilities at a scale and test duration that is convincing to potential end users. Such technology demonstrations comprise the DDFA's large-scale technology demonstration and deployment program. Those programs that have been completed or are still in progress are listed in Table 3.2. The DDFA counts over 300 successful new technology deployments as a result of the program (DOE, 2000f). The DDFA was reviewed by a previous NRC committee (NRC, 1998a), and the present committee has not directed comments or recommendations to the DDFA. However, because the role of the DDFA is to develop and deploy new technologies, it is clearly necessary that the DDFA pick-up and sponsor promising research results from the EMSP. Suggested ways to improve the handoff, sponsorship, and maturing of EMSP research through OST's gate system are discussed in Chapter 5. 2Within EM, baseline technologies are currently available and sufficiently established for a contractor to use as the basis for estimating cost and duration of a D&D task.

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Page 40 TABLE 3.2 Large-Scale Demonstration and Deployment Projects Current Projects Completed Projects • Los Alamos National Laboratorytransuranic waste • Chicago Pile 5 (CP-5) reactor at Argonne National Laboratory-East • Mound tritium facilities • Hanford C reactor • Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory fuel storage canals and underwater and underground facilities • Fernald Plant-1 • Savannah River 321 -M fuel fabrication facility U.S. Programs Outside the DOE The committee found no other U.S. programs comparable to the EMSP in funding scientific research aimed at the D&D of nuclear facilities. The committee did find a number of programs, however, that are of significance to the D&D task. These are listed in Table 3.3. The Electric Power Research Institute, for example, has a decommissioning technology and planning program. Both the Environmental Protection Agency and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have regulatory responsibilities that pertain to facility D&D. Research conducted by military organizations is mission-directed, but in a broader sense than that of the EMSP. Some military research (e.g., chemistry, materials science, and intelligent systems) may be applicable to D&D. The National Science Foundation (NSF) is the largest funding sponsor of basic research (e.g., biology, chemistry, materials science, physics) that might find application to D&D problems. 3 A previous NRC study provides a 20-page table of programs in other federal agencies that in the general nature of basic research could be relevant to D&D (NRC, 2000a). International D&D Science and Technology Progams Since 1979 the European Commission (EC) has been engaged in scientific research and technology development for nuclear facility D&D. 3The NSF maintains a web site at http://www.nsf.gov. Readers interested in pursuing international collaborations (see next section) can find information at < http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/int/start.htm >.

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Page 41 TABLE 3.3 Research Programs Outside of the U.S. Department of Energy PROGRAM Description and Funding WEBSITE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE (EPRI) Available at: www.epri.com The goal of the EPRI decommissioning technology program is to assist utilities minimize the cost of decommissioning through enhanced planning, determining optimum financial fund set-aside, applying lessons learned by other utilities with retired plants, and use of advanced technology. Recently expanded with the participation of the five U.S. utilities that have shut-down nuclear plants but no operating nuclear units, this program now has a technical steering committee open to domestic utilities with an interest in decommissioning and international utilities that join the program. Another goal is to facilitate transfer of relevant technical developments from the programs of the Department of Energy, especially from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), and from international organizations. EPRI is currently evaluating the USNRC's D&D and the DOE's RESRAD codes to understand the differences and the implications of each code in modeling and meeting the 25 mrem/yr limit. Funding is $1M per year; less than $100,000 per year goes to universities. NUCLEAR ENERGY INSTITUTE (NEI) Available at: www.nei.org Traditionally, the NEI does not fund science-based researches it is primarily concerned with regulatory development and implementation issues. However, they fund research indirectly by funneling funds into EPRI's efforts. U.S. NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (USNRC) Available at: www.nrc.gov Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning Program USNRC regulatory and oversight activities include decommissioning, which involves safely removing a facility from service and reducing residual radioactivity to a level that permits the property to be released.This action is to be taken by a licensee before termination of the license. Some power reactor licensees recently have decided to shut down their facilities prematurely, before the expiration of the current operating licenses (e.g., Haddam Heck, Maine Yankee, Zion, etc.).These unexpected shut-downs have resulted in additional staff efforts in the areas of decommissioning inspections and in the licensing area to process license amendments and exemptions reducing regulatory requirements to correspond to the reduced risk posed by the permanently shutdown plants. In some cases, non-licensed facilities may also be required to reduce or stabilize contamination before sites are released. This activity comprises the USNRC's integrated regulation of the decontamination and decommissioning of facilities and sites associated with NRC-licensed activities, including associated research, rule-making efforts, and the technical interface with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to resolve issues of mutual interest in accordance with the March 1992 General Memorandum of Understanding. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) Available at: www.epa.gov Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) The ETV, a new program, was instituted to verify the performance of innovative technical solutions to problems that threaten human health or the environment. ETV was created to substantially accelerate the entrance of new environmental technologies into the domestic and international marketplace. ETV verifies commercial-ready, private-sector technologies through 12 pilots. The “Waste Research Strategy”covers research necessary to support both the proper management of solid and hazardous wastes and the effective remediation of contaminated waste sites.This research includes improving the assessment of existing environmental risks, as well as developing more cost-effective ways to reduce those risks. Pollution Prevention Research Strategy One of EPA's strategic goals is to prevent pollution and reduce risk in communities, homes, workplaces, and ecosystems. This goal must be based in large part on the application of the best available science and technology associated with a preventive approach. The Office of Research and Development's (ORD's) Pollution Prevention Research Strategy describes the agency's research and development program in pollution prevention for the next five years. It is designed around the vision that scientifically based pollution prevention research and development products will be used routinely for improved environmental decision making on high-risk human health and environmental problems.

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Page 42 PROGRAM Description and Funding WEBSITE National Center for Clean Industrial and Treatment Technologies (CenCITT) CenCITT is a research consortium dedicated to advancing science, engineering, and pollution prevention. It was established through a base grant from EPA's Centers Program. Its founding members included Michigan Technological University (MTU),the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), and the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities (UM). Since its establishment CenCITT has initiated 57 projects involving 51 principal investigators, 57 companies, 33 governmental and other organizations, and well over 100 students. Targeted industry sectors have included chemical processing, metals, manufacturing, energy, forest products, and others. Participating disciplines have included environmental, chemical, civil, mechanical, metallurgical, and geological engineering,as well as chemistry, biology, social science, business, and forestry. National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) Science to Improve Risk Assessment ORD/NCEA continues to be a national leader in the field of risk analysis of human health and ecological effects, and this effort will continue to serve as a catalyst for NCEA's research program. Drawing on its experience in performing human health and ecological risk assessments, NCEA performs and supports scientific activities designed to improve future risk assessments. A major goal is to perform the research necessary to develop an accessible, seamless, common methodology for combined human health and ecological risk assessments, so that decision makers at all levels can have the integrated view of risk needed to make sound decisions. National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) The NRMRL conducts research into ways to prevent and reduce risks from pollution that threaten human health and the environment. The laboratory investigates methods and their cost-effectiveness for prevention and control of pollution to air, land, water, and subsurface resources; protection of water quality in public water systems; remediation of contaminated sites, sediments, and ground water; prevention and control of indoor air pollution; and restoration of ecosystems. National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) NHEERL is EPA's focal point for scientific research on the effects of contaminants and environmental stressors on human health and ecosystem integrity. Its research helps the agency identify and understand the processes that cause pollution and helps the agency evaluate risks that pollution poses to humans and ecosystems. The impact of NHEERL's efforts can be felt beyond the agency as well, enabling state and local governments to implement more effective environmental goals, and informing international governments and organizations on issues of environmental importance. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ARMY—ARMY RESEARCH OFFICE Available at: www.aro.army.mil Chemical Sciences Division: Analytical Chemistry The detection and identification of chemical agents, explosives, and chemical contaminants are of interest to the Army on the battlefield and for environmental applications. Research areas include novel detection and identification schemes, small lightweight sensors, multidimensional analytical techniques,and predictive and interpretive models. Proposals in this area will only be considered for basic research that is connected with specific Army research programs. Polymer Polymeric materials are of critical importance to the Army for soldier protection and materiel. This program supports molecular-level polymer research leading to new polymeric materials that are chemical resistant, have selective permeability, are resistant to environmental changes, and have reduced weight with increased strength. Research areas of current interest include synthesis of new polymers, molecular property studies, computational modeling, self assembly, molecular architecture, and dendritic molecules. Surface and Interfacial Chemistry This program supports research on the decomposition of hazardous molecules on well-characterized surfaces and in organized media (e.g. micelles, microemulsions, vesicles,and monolayer films) at liquid-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces.The development of new experimental probes of these reactions is also of interest. The most important species are organo-phosphorus, -sulfur, and -nitrogen molecules, and reactions of organic functional groups on surfaces and in these organized media. The principal reactions of interest are hydrolysis and oxidation, and catalysis is a strongly desired goal of these studies; however, new concepts are encouraged. We also encourage studies of erosion of metal and other surfaces by combustion gases.

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Page 43 PROGRAM Description and Funding WEBSITE Theoretical Chemistry Army requirements for insensitive munitions, for propellants and explosives with greater energy density, for the control of propellant burning rates, and for controlled energy release from explosives provide a continuing interest in a variety of theoretical explorations. Theoretical investigations may provide predictive capabilities relevant to the properties and behavior of a wide spectrum of energetic materials and their prototypes, more specifically studies of energy transfer mechanisms in condensed phases, the prediction of molecular reactivities, the investigation of heterogeneous reactions, and the prediction of reaction pathways. Theoretical understanding of atoms, molecules, and clusters on surfaces may provide the basis for rational design of catalysts. Materials Science Division Physical Behavior of Materials The program of Physical Behavior of Materials seeks research directed at providing an improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and key materials and processing variables that determine the electronic, magnetic, and optical (EMO) properties of materials and affect the reliability of EMO devices. Emphasis is on research that will facilitate the nanostructuring of materials to realize the materials-by-design concept where new and unique materials are constructed on the atomic scale with application-specific properties.This includes research on understanding the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic principles that control the evolution of microstructures, understanding the mechanisms whereby the microstructure affects the physical properties of materials, and developing insight and methodologies for the beneficial utilization and manipulation of defects and microstructure to improve material performance. Mathematical and Computer Sciences Division Applied Analysis The Applied Analysis Program supports Army needs in mathematical modeling and analysis for advanced solid materials, soil and granular materials, fluid flow including reactive flow, photonic bandgap materials, nonlinear dynamics and inverse scattering. Advanced Solid Materials The Advanced Solid Materials Program supports mathematical research oriented toward optimizing properties or performance characteristics of highly nonlinear materials, including advanced composites for armor and “smart” materials for sensors. Lightweight, high-strength structural components, including advanced composites, contribute to attaining mobility and protection requirements for U.S. forces (as well as to the fuel efficiency and safety of the U.S. automobile fleet). Advanced composites are challenging to analyze and design because of the presence of many interacting length scales. Smart materials are the functional ingredients of actuators, sensors, and transducers. Systems and Control The Systems and Control Program is concerned with modeling, analysis, and design of complex real-time systems, especially as they relate to Army problems in distributed command, control, and communications and in guidance and control of complex semi-automated and automated systems. The program invests in fundamental control theory, intelligent systems, and design and control of smart structures. Intelligent Systems Given advances in technology, environmental factors and goals, an intelligent system configures assets to achieve goals or to replan objectives in a fault-tolerant fashion either autonomously or for intelligence augmentation of human-centered systems. Design and Control of Smart Structures The Army is interested in developing an analysis capability that includes a combination of mathematical theories of design, control, analysis, and visualization that would aid in the search for an optimal or near-optimal design of smart and adaptive structures.

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Page 44 PROGRAM Description and Funding WEBSITE Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics Program This area includes matter waves and atom optics; nonlinear atomic and molecular processes for sensor protection and optical processing; the development and exploitation of plasmas for toxic gas destruction, pollution reduction, and materials processing; hybrid optical systems; coherent source generation; coherent or ballistic imaging through turbid and scattering media; and atom optics for novel sensors and lithography. U.S. AIR FORCE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH (AFOSR) Available at: www.afosr.af.mil Human-Machine Interface A basic research program investigating the key enabling technologies necessary to enhance human-machine interfaces. Emphasis is on human factors related to the design of novel interfaces. New measures of individual cognitive workload will be studied for use in monitoring performance in response to stress and fatigue and for establishing benchmarks for alternative interface systems. Chemistry and Life Sciences A wide range of fundamental chemistry and life sciences research is supported to provide the Air Force with novel options to increase performance and operational flexibility. The chemistry effort in the directorate supports the structural materials activities in the Directorate of Aerospace and Materials Sciences to make an integrated AFOSR structural materials program. Polymer Chemistry The goal of this research area is to gain a better understanding of the influence of chemical structures and processing conditions on the properities and behaviors of polymeric and organic materials. This understanding will lead to development of advanced polymeric materials for Air Force applications. Our approach is to study the chemistry and physics of these materials through synthesis, processing, and characterization. This area addresses both functional properties and properties pertinent to structural applications. Materials with these properties will provide capabilities for future Air Force systems to achieve global awareness, global mobility, and space operations as envisioned in New World Vistas. Surface Science Surface science supports basic research in chemistry on the interface, reactivity, and analysis of surfaces and thin films. Our goal is to improve our understanding of surface processes involved in these areas. Research in the chemistry and morphology at interfaces will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in those surface processes, which in turn will lead to more effective modification and control of surface relationships. Toxic Biological Interactions Air Force operations utilize physical and chemical agents that may interact with biological tissue and be potentially harmful to military and civilian personnel, to the surrounding populace, and to the environment. The agents include non-ionizing radiant energies (radio frequency radiation, microwaves, and laser light), heavy metals (chromium and cadmium), and various chemicals that constitute fuels, propellants, and lubricants of interest to the Air Force. Exposure to these agents may result directly from their use during Air Force operations and maintenance and, in the case of chemicals, may also occur indirectly as a result of leaky storage containers, for example, that contaminate waste streams, groundwater, and soil. To protect humans and maintain safe working environments, the Air Force supports basic research that endeavors to understand how these agents may interact with biological systems at the subcellular and molecular levels to produce toxic effects. Computational Mathematics This program aims to develop improved mathematical methods and algorithms that exploit advanced computational capabilities, in support of Air Force scientific computing interests. For the most part, this program seeks to develop innovative methods and algorithms that improve modeling and simulation capabilities. These improved capabilities, in turn, enable understanding, prediction, and control of complex physical phenomena crucial to the Air Force.

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Page 45 PROGRAM Description and Funding WEBSITE Artificial Intelligence The timely management of information, and the ability to make decisions based on that information, is of paramount importance within this program. The key issue that we are addressing is how to effectively incorporate all available information, from diverse sources and modalities, into the decision process. To understand this issue, we are sponsoring research into ways to make the best use of uncertain information; share and disseminate information; increase the accuracy, speed, and economy of the recognition and identification process; and aid the intelligence analyst. OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH (ONR) Available at: www.onr.navy.mil Physical Sciences Division Physical Chemistry This program develops relationships between fundamental atomic and molecular properties and macroscopic physical states and chemical reactivity. Primary areas of interest include research relating to the chemistry and physics of sliding contacts and the development of a molecular-level understanding of lubrication. Atomic and Molecular Physics The research supported under this program seeks primarily to understand and exploit the interactions of light, atoms, ions, and molecules. Areas supported at present include laser cooling and trapping of both ions and neutral atoms; Bose-Einstein condensation; atom laser concepts; coherent control, e.g., of chemical reactions; femtosecond pulse shaping;quantum computing; and quantum state teleportation. Electrochemical Science and Technology This program develops a foundation of electrochemical sciences and technology and exploits this knowledge for energy and power systems. Areas of interest include new electrode and catalyst materials and processing, interfacial structure and dynamics, and small domains. Solid State and Materials Chemistry This program supports cutting-edge basic science in Solid State and Materials Chemistry (SSMC), which has a strong connection with potential Navy and DOD applications. The program is interested in revolutionary concepts and does not support incremental, evolutionary broad-based science unless it is intimately connected with a Navy problem. Polymer Chemistry This program supports fundamental research on the nature of macromolecules with emphasis on the solid state. The over-all goal is the achievement of advanced properties that can be utilized in improving Naval systems. The average award is $100,000. Materials Science and Technology Division Coatings, Corrosion, and Oxidation This task develops corrosion control approaches founded on the use of new materials, new coatings, passive films, and resistance to environment-induced cracking. Tribology and Adhesion Science and Technology The objective of this task is to increase the understanding of tribological mechanisms and to develop adhesion technology to enable a broader application of advanced structural and specialty materials. Material Processing Science and Technology This task supports research and development in materials processing and component fabrication technology to increase the flexibility and affordability of production.

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Page 46 PROGRAM Description and Funding WEBSITE National Science Foundation (NSF) www.nsf.gov Mathematics and Physical Sciences Directorate Analytical and Surface Chemistry Supports fundamental chemical research directed toward the characterization and analysis of all forms of matter. Inorganic, Bioinorganic, and Organometallic Chemistry Supports research on synthesis, structure, and reaction mechanisms of molecules containing metals, metalloids, and non-metals encompassing the entire periodic table of the elements. Experimental Physical Chemistry Supports experimental investigation of the physical properties of chemical systems. Scientific issues range from the nature and properties of individual molecules to the behavior of molecules in the aggregate. Theoretical and Computational Chemistry Provides support for theoretical and computational research in areas of electronic structure, statistical mechanics, simulations and modeling, and chemical dynamics. Division of Materials Research Metals (MET), Ceramics (CER), and Electronic Materials (EM) Program This program focuses on fundamental research in the areas of metals, ceramics, and electronic materials. Projects are composed primarily of experimental activities but may incorporate some related theoretical and computational research. Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers (MRSEC) Program MRSEC are supported by the NSF to undertake materials research of scope and complexity that would not be feasible under traditional funding of individual research projects. Division of Civil and Mechanical Systems Solid Mechanics and Materials Engineering (SMME) The SMME program links the expertise of analytical, computational, and experimental solid mechanics and iomechanics with materials and surface engineering to understand, characterize, analyze,design, and control the mechanical properties and performance of materials and devices. Surface Engineering and Material Design (SEM) The SEM program element supports generic research on links between microstructure design and control and properties, performance, and engineering of materials and surfaces for novel applications in civil and mechanical systems and components. Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) SERDP is the DOD's corporate environmental research and development (R&D) program, planned and executed in full partnership with the DOE and the EPA, with participation by numerous other federal and non-federal organizations. SERDP identifies, develops, and transitions environmental technologies that relate directly to defense mission accomplishment. SERDP is improving mission readiness through environmental research by accelerating cost-effective cleanup of contaminated defense sites; facilitating full compliance with environmental laws and regulations; enhancing training, testing, and operational readiness through prudent conservation measures; and reducing defense industrial waste streams through aggressive pollution prevention. Within its broad areas of interest, SERDP focuses on DOD needs in four thrust areas: Cleanup, Compliance, Conservation, and Pollution Prevention technologies.

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Page 47 There are also two major international organizations that provide information on D&D science and technology. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has established a large information exchange program, the Cooperative Agreement on Decommissioning. The International Atomic Energy Agency holds workshops and publishes safety standards, guidelines, and technical reports on up-to-date D&D technologies. Additionally, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization funds scientific research, some of which may be applicable to D&D (NATO, 2000a, 2000b), as may be some of the projects funded by the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC). ISTC projects are led by investigators in former Soviet countries that now comprise the Commonwealth of Independent States (ISTC, 2001). The EC Research and Technological Development Framework Program Since 1979 the EC has conducted four successive research and development (R&D) programs on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. 4 The main objective of these programs has been to establish a scientific basis for the safe, socially acceptable, and economically affordable decommissioning of obsolete or redundant nuclear facilities. These European Union-wide programs were partially or totally funded by the EC under its five-year framework programs. The first two five-year programs focused on laboratory-scale research and development, while the latter programs included pilot-scale projects and establishment of information databases. The pilot-scale projects emphasized testing and demonstrating new technologies under representative industrial conditions to determine their feasibility, cost, and safety. Total funding since the program began has equaled about $65 million (Forsström, 1999). Table 3.4 lists the pilot projects. Within the European Union there is experience in the D&D of a variety of types of nuclear facilities, including research laboratories and reactors, reprocessing plants, and nuclear power plants. The EC was most active in funding D&D research from 1989 through 1993. Funding has decreased as new technologies have reached maturity, and program officials feel that little additional research is needed (Colquhoun, 1999). Nevertheless, research in different topics directly connected to D&D (e.g., waste minimization or conditioning and handling of mixed waste) is still supported (EC, 1998). The committee noted that the EC approach was similar to the gate approach (see 4The European Commission (EC) is the executive body for the European Union, which includes 15 European countries.

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Page 48 TABLE 3.4 European Commission Pilot Dismantling Projects Facility Name Type Location Production Capacity Production Period Start Decommissioning Period BR-3 Pressurized water reactor Mol, Belgium 11 Mwe 1962-87 1989 WAGR Advanced gas-cooled reactor Windscale, United Kingdom 33 Mwe 1962-81 1981 KRB-A Boiling water reactor Gundremmingen, Germany 250 Mwe 1966-77 1982 AT-1 Reprocessing plant La Hague, France 2 kg/d 1969-79 1981 Figure 3.1) used by OST as described in presentations to the committee (Boyd, 2000; Meservey, 2000; Brouns, 2000). ation. Promising research proposals can therefore be identified early in the process. The OECD Cooperation Agreement onDecommissioning This cooperative agreement provides an intensive exchange of information but does not financially support D&D research (NEA, 1998). This agreement began in the 1980s with ten projects from a few countries involved (NEA, 1996). Currently it includes 39 decommissioning projects in 13 countries. Membership includes the European countries, Canada, Japan, and the United States. Countries with observer status include former Eastern Bloc countries (e.g., Slovak Republic, Estonia) and Korea. Participating projects are classified as reactor and non-reactor facilities. This agreement is the most comprehensive international information exchange about D&D technologies and progress in related areas. Information exchanges require a confidentiality agreement so that true state-of-the-art or propriety technologies can be disclosed. Finding and Recommendation on International D&D Collaborations There are significant opportunities for international collaborations in D&D research. In spite of this, U.S. involvement, as described to the committee, is minimal (Bedick, 2000; Menon, 2000). 5 The committee recommends that EMSP pursue partnerships or cooperation in international research programs. These interactions should include information sharing, conferences, jointly funded research projects, and exchange of personnel at the scientific staff level. 5Present involvement includes DOE participation in committees of the OECD Cooperative Agreement, and a few DDFA projects (DOE, 2000f).