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U.S. Astronomy and Astrophysics: Managing an Integrated Program
cording to the decadal survey report (National Research Council, Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2001), Europe and Japan have together invested in optical/infrared facilities at a level (relative to gross domestic product) greater than 10 times that of the NSF investment over a comparable period, and more than 3 times that of the combined federal, state, and private investment. The international optical/infrared capabilities are characterized by Japan’s 8-meter Subaru Telescope, and the world’s largest combined aperture: the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope with four 8-meter telescopes in a single integrated complex. Europe, Japan, and Canada are partners with the United States in the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, which will consist of no less than 64 12-meter antennas in the Chilean high desert.
The soon-to-be-published Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium: Panel Reports (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2001) contains much greater detail on the federal, international, and public/ state observatories for radio, optical/infrared, and solar astronomy.