cording to the decadal survey report (National Research Council, Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2001), Europe and Japan have together invested in optical/infrared facilities at a level (relative to gross domestic product) greater than 10 times that of the NSF investment over a comparable period, and more than 3 times that of the combined federal, state, and private investment. The international optical/infrared capabilities are characterized by Japan’s 8-meter Subaru Telescope, and the world’s largest combined aperture: the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope with four 8-meter telescopes in a single integrated complex. Europe, Japan, and Canada are partners with the United States in the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, which will consist of no less than 64 12-meter antennas in the Chilean high desert.

The soon-to-be-published Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium: Panel Reports (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2001) contains much greater detail on the federal, international, and public/ state observatories for radio, optical/infrared, and solar astronomy.

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