Click for next page ( R2


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
RESEARCH NEEDS FOR HIGH-LEVEL WASTE STORED IN TANKS AND BINS AT U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SITES ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SCIENCE PROGRAM Committee on Long-Term Research Needs for Radioactive High-Leve~ Waste at Department of Energy Sites Board on Rad inactive Waste Management Division on Earth and Life Studies National Research Counci ~ NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

OCR for page R1
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competence and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this study was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, under Grant No. DE-FC01-99EW59049. All opinions, findings, conclusions, and rec- ommendations expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of Energy. International Standard Book Number: 0-309-07565-3 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (i n the Wash i ngton Metropol itan Area) http://www.nap.edu Cover: The photographs in the background show one bin containing calcined high-level waste at the Idaho Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (upper left) and six tanks at the Hanford Site before they were buried (lower right). Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

OCR for page R1
National Acaclemy of Sciences National Acaclemy of Engineering Institute of Meclicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal gov- ernment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the char- ter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstand- ing engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and educa- tion. Dr. Kenneth Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the feder- al government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engi- neering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair- man and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

OCR for page R1
COMMITTEE ON LONG-TERM RESEARCH NEEDS FOR HIGH-LEVEL WASTE AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SITES MICHAEL CORRADINI, Chair, University of Wisconsin, Madison DAVID CAMPBELL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (retired), Oak Ridge, Tennessee MICHELINE DRAYE, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, France CHARLES DRUMMOND 111, Ohio State University, Columbus PETER HAYWARD, Eutechnics Consulting, Inc., Pinawa, Manitoba, Canada LINN HOBBS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge EDWARD LAHODA, Westinghouse Electric Science and Technology Department, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ROBIN ROGERS, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa BEN STERN BERG, U niversity of Arizona, Tucson EDWIN ZEBROSKI, Elgis Consulting, Inc., Los Altos, California LIAISON TO THE BOARD ON RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAG EMENT ROBERT M. BERNERO, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (retired), Gaithersburg, Maryland STAFF BARBARA PASTINA, Staff Officer LAURA D. LLANOS, Senior Project Assistant MATTHEW BAXTER-PARROTT, Project Assistant iv

OCR for page R1
BOARD ON RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT JOHN F. AHEARNE, Chair, Sigma Xi and Duke University, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina CHARLES MCCOMBIE, Vice-Chair, Consultant, Gipf-Oberfrick, Switzerland ROBERT M. BERNERO, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (retired), Gaithersburg, Maryland ROBERT J. BUDNITZ, Future Resources Associates, Inc., Berkeley, California GREGORY R. CHOPPI N. Florida State University, Tal lahassee RODNEY EWING, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor JAMES H. JOHNSON, JR., Howard University, Washington, D.C. ROGER E. KASPERSON, Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden NIKOLAY LAVEROV, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow JANE C.S. LONG, Mackay School of Mines, University of Nevada, Reno ALEXANDER MACLACHLAN, E.l. du Pont de Nemours & Company (retired), Wilmington, Delaware WILLIAM A. MILLS, Oak Ridge Associated Universities (retired), Olney, Maryland MARTI N J. STEI N DLER, Argonne National Laboratory (retired), Downers Grove, Illinois ATSUYU Kl SUZU Kl, U n iversity of Tokyo, Japan JOHN J. TAYLOR, Electric Power Research Institute (retired), Palo Alto, California VICTORIA J. TSCH I N KEL, Landers and Parsons, Tal lahassee, F lorida STAFF KEVI N D. CROWLEY, Di rector MICAH D. LOWENTHAL, Staff Officer BARBARA PASTINA, Staff Officer GREGORY H. SYMMES, Senior Staff Officer JOH N R. Wl LEY, Sen for Staff Officer SUSAN B. MOCKLER, Research Associate TON I GREEN LEAF, Administrative Associate DARLA J. THOMPSON, Senior Project Assistant/Research Assistant LATRICIA C. BAI LEY, Senior Project Assistant LAURA D. LLANOS, Senior Project Assistant ANGELA R. TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant JAMES YATES, J R., Office Assistant

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
List of Report Reviewers ·eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to pro- vide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the delibera- tive process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Philip Clark, Sr., GPU Nuclear Corporation (retired) Wil liam J. Hinze, Purdue University Milton Levenson, Bechtel International (retired) Werner Lutze, U n iversity of New Mexico Dale Niesz, Rutgers University Martin Steindler, Argonne National Laboratory Victoria ]. Tschinkel, Landers and Parsons Raymond G. Wymer, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (retired) Although the reviewers listed above have provided many construc- tive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Clarence Al len of the California Institute of Technology. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. i s t o f R e p o r t R e v i e w e r s vii

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Preface ·~. ~ The objective of this study is to provide recommendations to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Management Science Program on the development of a long-term basic research agenda to address problems in the management of high-level waste (HLW) stored in tanks or bins at DOE sites. This report does not address other H LW-related problems. The complete statement of task is shown in Sidebar P.1 below. This study was sponsored by DOE's Office of Environmental Management. To accomplish this project, the National Research Council empanelled a 1 0-member committee within the Board on Radioactive Waste Management. The committee members were chosen for their expertise in relevant domains such as HLW management issues at DOE sites, risk assessment, nuclear and chemical engineering, radiation and analytical chemistry, materials science and engineering, HLW processing and · ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .e SIDEBAR P.1 STATEMENT OF TASK The objective of this study is to provide recommendations to the Department of Energy's Environmental Management (EM) Science Program on the development of a long-term basic research agenda to address HLW problems at DOE sites.The report will accomplish the following: Identify significant HLW problems that cannot be addressed effectively with current technolo- g~es. Recommend areas of research where the EM Science Program can make significant contribu- tions to solving these problems and adding to scientific knowledge generally. In recommending specific areas of research,the committee should take into account,where possible, the agendas of other HLW-related research programs.The committee may also consider and make rec- ommendations, as appropriate, on the processes by which (1 ) future research needs can be identified and (2) successful research results can be applied to DOE's HLW problems. P r e f a c e ix

OCR for page R1
immobilization forms, and geotechnical engineering. Two of the com- mittee members were chosen from foreign countries (France and Canada) with HEW and/or spent nuclear fuel management programs. This study could not have been completed without the help of vari- ous individuals and organizations. The committee would especially like to thank Carolyn Huntoon, Gerald Boyd, Mark Gilbertson, and Ker-Chi Chang of DOE's Office of Environmental Management for their contin- ued support and assistance throughout this study. The committee acknowledges the hard work of the individuals who organized site tours and briefings. In particular, the committee thanks Don Woodrich, (Handford Site), Jerome Morin, Thomas Gutmann, and Loucien Papouchado (Savannah River Site). The committee also recognizes the efforts of all the speakers who gave presentations during the informa- tion-gathering phase of this study (see Appendix F). The following individuals provided additional information to the committee: Carol Jantzen, Ned Bibler, and Walter Tamosaitis (Savannah River Site); Kenneth Picha, Theodore Pietrok, Kurt Gerdes, Joe Cruz, and Pete Gibbons (Tanks Focus Area); Greg Mitchem, and Tony Knepp (Hanford Site); Ian Pegg and Isabelle Muller (The Catholic University of America); Robert Perdue (Westinghouse Science and Technology Department); Yves Poitevin (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, France); Jean -Pau I Mou I i n (Socitete General e pou r les Tech n iq ues Nouvelles, France); and Maurice Tarnero (Compagnie Generale des Mati eres N u c I eai res, Fran ce). The committee also thanks the following staff of the National Research Council's Board on Radioactive Waste Management for their su pport, deaf ication, and hard work i n gu id i ng the report from its early stages through publication: Barbara Pastina, Kevin Crowley, Laura Llanos, and Matthew Baxter-Parrot. This report reflects a consensus of the committee and has been reviewed in accordance with the procedures of the National Research Council. As is the normal practice of the National Academies, commit- tee members do not represent the views of their institutions, but form an independent body to author this report. Michael Corradini Chai rman May 2001 S U B S U R F A C E S C ~ E N C E

OCR for page R1
Contents ·~.e Executive Summary 1 Introduction 2 Overview of HLW Challenges at DOE Sites 3 Characterization 4 Retrieval and Pretreatment 5 Immobilization 6 Tank Closure and Other Long-Term Issues 7 EMSP Research Portfolio: Technological Risk and Desired Attributes 8 Summary References Appendixes A I nterim Report B Analysis of the EMSP Research Portfol C Spent Nuclear Fuel Issues E F G H 'lo EMSP Overview and HEW Research Program Biographical Sketches of Committee Members List of Presentations Glossary List of Acronyms C 0 n t e n t s 7 13 28 37 48 65 77 83 87 97 108 1 1 4 1 1 5 120 124 126 133

OCR for page R1