research, and development of scientific standards and policy with regard to hematopoietic stem cell related products and, in 2000, convened the first FDA advisory committee conference on neurologic stem cell products. Since joining CBER in 1982, Dr. Siegel has served as founding director of the Division of Clinical Trial Design and Analysis, deputy director of the Division of Cytokine Biology, chief of the Laboratory of Cellular Immunology, and senior investigator in the Division of Virology. He trained in medicine and infectious diseases at Stanford University School of Medicine, in internal medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, and in biological sciences at the California Institute of Technology.

James A. Thomson, DVM, PhD, is a University of Wisconsin-Madison developmental biologist in the Department of Anatomy in the School of Medicine and also serves as the chief pathologist at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center on the UW-Madison campus. Dr. Thomson received his doctorate in veterinary medicine in 1985 and his doctorate in molecular biology in 1988, both at the University of Pennsylvania. Since joining the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, he has conducted work on the isolation and culture of non-human primate and human embryonic stem cells, undifferentiated cells that have the ability to become any of the cells that make up the tissues of the body. Dr. Thomson directed the group that reported the first isolation of embryonic stem cell lines from a non-human primate in 1995, work that led his group to the first successful isolation of human embryonic stem cell lines in 1998. Dr. Thomson is the scientific director of the WiCell Research Institute, a private subsidiary established by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation to supply cells to support research for both academic and non-academic researchers.

LeRoy Walters, PhD, is the Joseph P. Kennedy Professor of Christian Ethics at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics and professor of philosophy at Georgetown University. He chaired the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee from 1993 to 1996. He is the author of The Ethics of Human



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