Index

A

Adipocytes, 15, 28, 32

Adult stem cells, 19-29, 41, 55

animal models, 21, 23, 25-26, 27, 28-29, 47

bone marrow, 2, 7, 16, 19, 21, 41, 58

brain, 2, 12, 16, 23, 24, 25, 27-28

cancer, 22, 24

cardiovascular system, 21, 28

cloning and, 11

committee recommendations, 5, 55, 56

defined, 16-17, 67

differentiation, 2, 7-8, 16-17, 20, 21, 27-28, 29

embryonic stem cells vs, 2-3, 17, 56

eyes, 23, 25, 25-26, 28

hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), 16, 19-23, 25, 26, 29, 47

hepatic system, 23, 26

histocompatibility, 21-22, 24, 26

multipotent, 28

muscle, 16, 21, 23, 25, 28

neural, 16, 21, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28

pancreatic, 23, 26

philosophical, ethical, and legal issues, 47

plasticity, 16, 24, 25, 26, 28, 41, 47

proteins, 12, 22, 26-27

skin, 21, 23, 27, 33, 41

Alzheimer’s disease, 8

Animal models, 2

adult stem cells, 21, 23, 25-26, 27, 28-29, 47

bone marrow transplants, 21

committee findings and recommendations, 55-56

diabetes, fetal stem cells, 16

embryonic stem cells, 32-34, 35, 36

hematopoietic stem cells, 21, 23, 25, 29

neural stem cells, 13, 27

Antigens

see also Histocompatibility

defined, 67, 71

surface antigen, 22-23, 38, 71, 72

Attitudes and beliefs, see Philosophical, ethical and legal issues;

Public opinion

Autoimmune diseases, 8

diabetes, 8, 28, 35, 84

Autologous transplants, 24, 27

defined, 67

B

B cells, 20

Birth defects, 8

Blastocysts, 13, 14, 31, 32, 37

cloning, 11

defined, 67

inner cell mass, 15, 31, 37, 70;

see also Embryonic stem cells

Blood, see Hematopoietic stem cells

Bone cells, 16, 28, 79

Bone marrow stem cells

see also Hematopoietic stem cells

adult, 2, 7, 16, 19, 21, 41, 58

committee workshop agenda, 79

defined, 67-68



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Stem Cells and the Future of Regenerative Medicine Index A Adipocytes, 15, 28, 32 Adult stem cells, 19-29, 41, 55 animal models, 21, 23, 25-26, 27, 28-29, 47 bone marrow, 2, 7, 16, 19, 21, 41, 58 brain, 2, 12, 16, 23, 24, 25, 27-28 cancer, 22, 24 cardiovascular system, 21, 28 cloning and, 11 committee recommendations, 5, 55, 56 defined, 16-17, 67 differentiation, 2, 7-8, 16-17, 20, 21, 27-28, 29 embryonic stem cells vs, 2-3, 17, 56 eyes, 23, 25, 25-26, 28 hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), 16, 19-23, 25, 26, 29, 47 hepatic system, 23, 26 histocompatibility, 21-22, 24, 26 multipotent, 28 muscle, 16, 21, 23, 25, 28 neural, 16, 21, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28 pancreatic, 23, 26 philosophical, ethical, and legal issues, 47 plasticity, 16, 24, 25, 26, 28, 41, 47 proteins, 12, 22, 26-27 skin, 21, 23, 27, 33, 41 Alzheimer’s disease, 8 Animal models, 2 adult stem cells, 21, 23, 25-26, 27, 28-29, 47 bone marrow transplants, 21 committee findings and recommendations, 55-56 diabetes, fetal stem cells, 16 embryonic stem cells, 32-34, 35, 36 hematopoietic stem cells, 21, 23, 25, 29 neural stem cells, 13, 27 Antigens see also Histocompatibility defined, 67, 71 surface antigen, 22-23, 38, 71, 72 Attitudes and beliefs, see Philosophical, ethical and legal issues; Public opinion Autoimmune diseases, 8 diabetes, 8, 28, 35, 84 Autologous transplants, 24, 27 defined, 67 B B cells, 20 Birth defects, 8 Blastocysts, 13, 14, 31, 32, 37 cloning, 11 defined, 67 inner cell mass, 15, 31, 37, 70; see also Embryonic stem cells Blood, see Hematopoietic stem cells Bone cells, 16, 28, 79 Bone marrow stem cells see also Hematopoietic stem cells adult, 2, 7, 16, 19, 21, 41, 58 committee workshop agenda, 79 defined, 67-68

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Stem Cells and the Future of Regenerative Medicine differentiation, 7, 19 embryonic, 32, 33 Brain adult stem cells, 2, 12, 16, 23, 24, 25, 27-28 Alzheimer’s disease, 8 committee workshop agenda, 80 embryonic stem cells, 32, 38 fetal stem cells, 13 Parkinson’s disease, 8, 13, 27, 35, 84 Breast cancer, 22, 85 Burns, 8 C Cancer, 8 see also Bone marrow stem cells adult stem cells, 22, 24 brain, 24 breast, 22, 85 embryonic stem cells, 32, 34, 36, 38 hematopoietic stem cells, 22 neoplastic growth defined, 71 Cardiovascular system, 8 adult stem cells, 21, 28 embryonic stem cells, 32, 33 neural crest cells, 13 Cartilage, 16, 28, 33 Chromosomes, 32, 36 defined, 68 Cloning, reproductive, 10, 11, 47 D Dendrites defined, 68 embryonic stem cells, 38 Diabetes, 8, 16, 28, 35, 84 Differentiation, 1, 42, 55 see also Multipotent stem cells; Plasticity adult stem cells, 2, 7-8, 16-17, 20, 21, 27-28, 29 blood cells, 19, 20 bone marrow stem cells, 7, 19 defined, 68 embryonic stem cells, 7-8, 19, 21, 32-33, 34, 36-38 undifferentiated cells, defined, 72 Digestive system, 13, 21, 23, 33 DNA defined, 68 recombinant, 3-4, 51-53, 58 Drugs, immunosuppressive, 4, 34 E Ectoderm, 13, 21 defined, 68 Embryonic germ cells, 16 defined, 68 Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), 8, 10, 15, 16, 31-39, 55, 86 see also Blastocysts; Philosophical, ethical and legal issues adult stem cells vs, 2-3, 17, 56 animal models, 32-34, 35, 36 bone marrow, 32, 33 brain, 32, 38 cancer, 32, 34, 36, 38 cardiovascular system, 32, 33 cloning vs, 11 committee recommendations, 5, 41-42, 43, 56 committee workshop agenda, 79-81 defined, 13, 68-69 differentiation, 7-8, 19, 21, 32-33, 34, 36-38 feeder cells, 33, 36 funding for research, 3-4, 5, 35, 49-51, 58, 59 hematopoietic, 32, 33, 34, 35, 47 hepatic, 34, 38 immune system, 34-35, 36, 38-39, 47 multipotent, 16, 32, 33-34, 41 muscle, 32, 33 neural stem cells, 8, 15, 32, 33-34, 35 pancreatic, 32, 34-35, 36 plasticity, 41; see also “multipotent” supra private sector, 3, 49-51 renal, 34-35 skin, 16, 33

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Stem Cells and the Future of Regenerative Medicine somatic cell nuclear transfer technique (SCNT), 5, 10, 11, 12, 37, 39, 45, 46, 47, 59 Embryos, 14 animal models, 21, 23, 27, 33, 41 defined, 68 ectoderm, 13, 21 morulas, 13, 70-71 zygotes, 13, 14, 15, 37, 72 Endoderm, 13, 21 defined, 69 Ethical issues, see Philosophical, ethical and legal issues Eyes, 16 adult stem cells, 23, 25-26, 28 committee biographies, 82 committee workshop agenda, 80 F Fats, see Adipocytes; Lipids Feeder cells, 33, 36 Fertilization, 14, 15 cloning, 11, 47 defined, 69 in vitro, 43, 48, 70 morula, 70-71 zygotes Fetal stem cells, 14, 16, 29 cloning vs, 11, 47 defined, 13-14 Food and Drug Administration, 54, 80, 86 France, 46 Funding, 48-54, 57-58 embryonic stem cells, 3-4, 5, 35, 49-51, 58, 59 private sector, 3, 49-52, 57 report at hand, xi, 9 research, general, 3-4, 51-52 G Genetic disorders, 8, 17, 84 adult stem cells, 24 Germany, 46 Germ cells, 16 defined, 69 Gonadal ridge, 16 defined, 69 germ cells, 16, 69 Graft-versus-host disease, 21-22 defined, 69 H Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), 56 adult, 16, 19-23, 25, 26, 29, 47 animal models, 21, 23, 25, 29 defined, 69 differentiation, 19, 20 embryonic, 32, 33, 34, 35, 47 fetal, hepatic system, 13, 16, 29, 80 T cells, 20, 21 Hepatic system, 7 adult stem cells, 23, 26 committee workshop agenda, 79-80 defined, 69 embryonic stem cells, 34, 38 fetal hematopoietic stem cells, 13, 16, 29, 80 Histocompatibility, 4, 21 adult stem cells, 21-22, 24, 26 autologous transplants, 24, 27, 67 committee recommendations, 5 defined, 69 embryonic stem cells, 34-35, 36, 38-39, 47 graft-versus-host disease, 21-22, 69 immunosuppressive drugs, 4, 34 transplant rejection, 4, 10, 12, 21-22, 24, 34-35, 36, 38-39, 47, 58 I Immune system see also Histocompatibility adult stem cells, 19, 21-22, 24, 26 antigens, 67, 71 surface antigen, 22-23, 38, 71, 72 autologous transplants, 24, 27, 67

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Stem Cells and the Future of Regenerative Medicine B cells, 20 cell types, defined, 69-70, 72 committee biographies, 83, 87 embryonic stem cells, 34-35, 36, 38-39, 47 graft-versus-host disease, 21-22, 69 lymphocytes, 20, 21, 70, 72, 87 macrophages, 15, 20, 70 somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), 10, 11, 12 T cells, 30, 31, 72 transplant rejection, 4, 10, 12, 21-22, 24, 34-35, 36, 38-39, 47, 58 immunosuppressive drugs, 4, 34 white blood cells, general, 72; see also “lymphocytes” supra Infection embryonic stem cells, 38 Inner cell mass, 15, 31, 37 see also Embryonic stem cells defined, 70 International perspectives, 46, 80 Internet, committee presentations, xii, 9 In vitro fertilization, 43, 48 defined, 70 K Kidney, see Renal system L Legal issues, see Philosophical, ethical and legal issues Leukocytes, see White blood cells Lipids defined, 70 Liver, see Hepatic system Lymphocytes, 87 B cells, 20 defined, 70 T cells, 20, 21, 72 M Macrophages, 15, 20 defined, 70 Malignancy, see Cancer Mesoderm, 13 defined, 70 Moral issues, see Philosophical, ethical and legal issues Morulas, 13 defined, 70-71 Multipotent stem cells, 16 adult stem cells, 28 defined, 12, 71 embryonic stem cells, 16, 32, 33-34, 41 Muscle stem cells adult, 16, 21, 23, 25, 28 committee workshop agenda, 79 embryonic, 32, 33 Mutations, 3, 36, 56-57 N National Institutes of Health, 50, 52-53 DNA research, 3-4, 53 national advisory group (ESC research), 5, 53, 58 recent report, 10 Neoplastic growth, see Cancer Neural crest cells fetal, 13-14, 16 Neural stem cells see also Brain adult, 16, 21, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28 Alzheimer’s disease, 8 animal models, 13, 27 committee workshop agenda, 80 defined, 71 embryonic, 8, 15, 32, 33-34, 35 fetal, 13 Parkinson’s disease, 8, 13, 27, 35, 84 spinal-cord injuries, 8, 83 Neurons defined, 71 dendrites, 38, 68

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Stem Cells and the Future of Regenerative Medicine O Osteoporosis, 8 Ovum, 13, 14, 15, 37 cloning, 11 defined, 71 P Pancreas adult stem cells, 23, 26 committee workshop agenda, 80 diabetes, 8, 16, 28, 35, 84 embryonic stem cells, 32, 34-35, 36 fetal stem cells, 13, 16 Parkinson’s disease, 8, 13, 27, 35, 84 Pharmaceuticals, see Drugs, immunosuppressive Philosophical, ethical and legal issues, xi-xii, 1, 3-5, 10, 12, 43-48, 50, 51-53, 55, 57-58, 85, 86-87 adult stem cell research, 47 committee workshop agenda, 80-81 DNA research, 3-4, 51-53, 58 international perspectives, 46, 80 public opinion, xi, 1, 52-53, 55, 57 religious, 44-45 Placenta, 16 defined, 71 Plasticity see also Multipotent stem cells adult stem cells, 16, 24, 25, 26, 28, 41, 47 defined, 12, 71 embryonic stem cells, 41 Pluripotent stem cells, see Multipotent stem cells Private sector, 3, 49-52, 57, 85 committee workshop agenda, 80 Progenitor cells hematopoietic, 20 pancreatic, 13 Proteins, adult stem cells, 12, 22, 26-27 Public opinion, xi, 1, 52-53, 55, 57 religious issues, 44-45 R Religious, 44-45 Renal system embryonic stem cells, 34-35 Reproductive system see also terms beginning “Embryo,” and “Fetal” cloning, 10, 11, 48 in vitro fertilization, 43, 48, 70 ovum, 11, 13, 14, 15, 37, 71 placenta, 16, 71 umbilical cord, 16, 22 zygotes, 13, 14, 15, 37, 72 S SCNT, see Somatic cell nuclear transfer technique Skin cells, 7, 13, 16 adult stem cells, 21, 23, 27, 33, 41 burns, 8 embryonic stem cells, 16, 33 Smooth muscle cells, 15 Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), 5, 10, 11, 12, 37, 39, 45, 46, 47, 59 Somatic cells, general, 29 committee recommendations, 5 defined, 71 Spinal-cord injuries, 8, 83 Stromal cells, 33 defined, 71 Surface antigens, 22-23, 38, 71 defined, 72 T T cells defined, 72 hematopoietic stem cells, 20, 21 Trophoblasts, 13

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Stem Cells and the Future of Regenerative Medicine U Umbilical cord, 16, 22 Undifferentiated cells, see Differentiation United Kingdom, 46 W White blood cells see also Hematopoietic stem cells; Lymphocytes; T cells defined, 72 World Wide Web, see Internet Z Zygotes, 13, 14, 15, 37 defined, 72