REFERENCES

Angel, J. 2000. President of the American Association of State Climatologists. Presentation to the September 7–8, 2000 meeting of the Climate Research Committee, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.


Berz, G.A. 1993. Global warming and the insurance industry. Interdiscipl. Scien. Rev. 18:120–125.


Changnon, S.A. 1995. Applied climatology: a glorious past-an uncertain future. Preprints, 9thConference on Applied Climatology. American Meteorological Society, pp. 1–6.

Changnon, S.A. 1999. Impacts of 1997–98 El Niño-generated weather in the United States. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 80:1819–1827.

Changnon, S.A. (ed). 2000. El Niño 1997–1998: the Climate Event of the Century, New York: Oxford University Press.

Changnon, S.A., F.T.Quinlan, and E.M.Rasmusson 1990. NOAA Climate Services Plan. Climate Analysis Center, National Weather Service, Silver Spring, MD.

Crawford, K. 2000. The Oklahoma Climate Survey. Presentation to the August 7–11, 2000 meeting of the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Woods Hole, MA.

Cuff, T. 2000. Navy Climate Service Programs. Presentation to the August 7–11, 2000 meeting of the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Woods Hole, MA.


Dlugolecki, A.F. 1992. Insurance implications of climatic change. The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance 17:393–405.


Hecht, A.D. 1984. Meeting the challenge of climate service in the 1980s. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 65:365–366.



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A Climate Services Vision: First Steps Toward the Future REFERENCES Angel, J. 2000. President of the American Association of State Climatologists. Presentation to the September 7–8, 2000 meeting of the Climate Research Committee, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Berz, G.A. 1993. Global warming and the insurance industry. Interdiscipl. Scien. Rev. 18:120–125. Changnon, S.A. 1995. Applied climatology: a glorious past-an uncertain future. Preprints, 9th Conference on Applied Climatology. American Meteorological Society, pp. 1–6. Changnon, S.A. 1999. Impacts of 1997–98 El Niño-generated weather in the United States. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 80:1819–1827. Changnon, S.A. (ed). 2000. El Niño 1997–1998: the Climate Event of the Century, New York: Oxford University Press. Changnon, S.A., F.T.Quinlan, and E.M.Rasmusson 1990. NOAA Climate Services Plan. Climate Analysis Center, National Weather Service, Silver Spring, MD. Crawford, K. 2000. The Oklahoma Climate Survey. Presentation to the August 7–11, 2000 meeting of the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Woods Hole, MA. Cuff, T. 2000. Navy Climate Service Programs. Presentation to the August 7–11, 2000 meeting of the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Woods Hole, MA. Dlugolecki, A.F. 1992. Insurance implications of climatic change. The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance 17:393–405. Hecht, A.D. 1984. Meeting the challenge of climate service in the 1980s. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 65:365–366.

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A Climate Services Vision: First Steps Toward the Future Hooke, W., and R.A.Pielke, Jr. 2000. Short-term weather prediction: an orchestra in search of a conductor. In Prediction: Science, Decision Making and the Future of Nature, eds. D.Sarewitz, R.A.Pielke, Jr., and R.Byerly, 61–83. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. HUD (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development). 1993. Frost-protected shallow foundations in residential construction, Phase 1. Instrument No. DU100K000005897 (April). Upper Marlboro, Maryland: NAHB Research Center. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2001. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. Insurance Research Council. 1995. Coastal exposure and community protection: Hurricane Andrew’s legacy. Insurance Research Council, Inc., and Insurance Institute for Property Loss Reduction, Wheaton, IL, 48 pp. Karl, T.R. 2000. Climate Services at the National Climatic Data Center. Presentation to the August 7–11, 2000 meeting of the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Woods Hole, MA. Karl, T.R., V.E.Derr, D.R.Easterling, C.K.Folland, D.J.Hoffman, S.Levitus, N.Nicholls, D.E.Parker, and G.W.Withee. 1995. Critical issues for long-term climate monitoring. Clim. Change 31:185–221. Landsea, C.W., and J.A.Knaff. 2000. How much skill was there in forecasting the very strong 1997–98 El Niño? Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 81:2107–2119. Munich Re. 1994. Weather patterns: warming to disaster. Technical report, Munich Reinsurance, London. NRC (National Research Council). 1992. Toward a New National Weather Service— Second Report. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1995. Natural Climate Variability on Decade-to-Century Time Scales. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1996. Learning to Predict Climate Variations Associated with El Niño and the Southern Oscillation, Accomplishments and Legacies of the TOGA Program: Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1998a. The Atmospheric Sciences Entering the Twenty-First Century. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1998b. Capacity of U.S. Climate Modeling to Support Climate Change Assessment Activities. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1998c. Decade-to-Century-Scale Climate Variability and Change: A Science Strategy. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1998d. Global Environmental Change: Research Pathways for the Next Decade. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1999a. Making Climate Forecasts Matter. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1999b. Adequacy of Climate Observing Systems. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1999c. Our Common Journey: a transition toward sustainability. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

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A Climate Services Vision: First Steps Toward the Future NRC. 1999d. A Vision for the National Weather Service: Road Map for the Future. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2000a. From Research to Operations in Weather Satellites and Numerical Weather Prediction: Crossing the Valley of Death. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2000b. Issues in the Integration of Research and Operational Satellite Systems for Climate Research: Part I. Science and Design. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2000c. Issues in the Integration of Research and Operational Satellite Systems for Climate Research: Part II. Implementation. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2001a. Improving the Effectiveness of U.S. Climate Modeling. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2001b. The Science of Regional and Global Change: Putting Knowledge to Work. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2001c. Grand Challenges in Environmental Sciences. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NWS (National Weather Service). 1991. Federal Register Notice: Policy Statement on Weather Service/Private Sector Roles. Federal Register Vol. 56, #13, p. 1984. Available at: <http://www.nws.noaa.gov/im/fedreg.htm>. Pielke, Jr., R.A., and R.A.Pielke, Sr. 1997. Hurricanes: their nature and impacts on society. Chichester, England: John Wiley and Sons. PricewaterhouseCoopers. 2001. The Weather Risk Management Industry: Survey findings for November, 1977 to March, 2001. A Report to the Weather Risk Management Association. Available at <http://www.wrma.org>. Redmond, K. 2000. Activities of the Western Regional Climate Center. Presentation to the August 7–11, 2000 meeting of the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Woods Hole, MA. Rhodes, S.L., E.Ely, and J.A.Dracup. 1984. Climate and the Colorado River: the limits of management. Bull Amer. Meteor. Soc. 65:682–691. Stiglitz, J, J.Orszag, and P.Orszag. 2000. The Role of Government in a Digital Age. Computer and Communications Industry Association, Washington, D.C. Available at: <http://www.ccianet.org/digitalgovstudy/main.htm>. WeatherRisk. 2000. Supplement to Risk and Energy and Power Risk Management, August. New York: Risk Waters Group. USGCRP (United States Global Change Research Program). 2000. Our Changing Planet: The FY 2001 U.S. Global Change Research Program. Washington, D.C.: National Science and Technology Council. USGCRP. 2001. Climate Change Impacts on the United States. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.