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A Climate Services Vision: First Steps Toward the Future Appendix D EXAMPLES OF AREAS OF CLIMATE INFORMATION REQUESTS TO THE WESTERN REGIONAL CLIMATE CENTER AGRICULTURE/LIFE SCIENCES (GROUP 1) Plant disease Cereals/corn/berries/grasses/ ornamentals/nuts/mints/melons/ fruits/vegetables/hay/alfalfa/ tubers/mushrooms/spices/ Plant Growth Planting times Germination Dormancy requirements Frost probabilities Lodging Harvest conditions Product quality Seed spoilage Transport conditions Storage conditions Product marketing Chemical tests Pesticides Growth retardants Growth enhancers Seed certification Relocations New crop introduction Climate changes/fluctuations Erosion Water Wind Viticulture Seed companies Soil climatologies Soil chemistry Degree days—growing/chilling
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A Climate Services Vision: First Steps Toward the Future Water issues Consumptive water use Water stress Drought Frequency Assessment Designation Groundwater recharge rate Groundwater use rate Groundwater contamination Irrigation needs Soil water balance Evapotranspiration Evaporation climatologies Runoff and non-point pollution Insects Moths/worms/beetles/flies/ants/ mites/maggots/grasshoppers/ crickets/caterpillars Chilling hours/dormancy Egg-laying conditions Growth/hatch timing Dispersion Migration Host plant environment Pollination conditions Metabolism rates (=temperature) Pesticide effectiveness Introduction of new pests Helpful (deliberate) Harmful (accidental)
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A Climate Services Vision: First Steps Toward the Future AGRICULTURE/LIFE SCIENCES (GROUP 2) Wildlife Severe winters/summers Habitat conditions Migration Transplantation Breeding success Birthing/calving success Endangered species conditions Refuge management Fish Lethal/injurious water temperatures In streams and rivers Behind impoundments Ice effects Weather-induced sediment loading Passage time—anadromous species Flow volume and timing Ocean conditions Hatchery conditions Disease outbreaks Condition of redds/eggs Grazing and forage conditions Caged and penned animals Permanent (domesticated species)Temporary (transplants/relocations) Bird counts Fungus distributions Landscaping Christmas trees Riparian (stream) conditions Experiment stations-research General data bases Conditions during experiments Forestry Reforestation Viability of nursery stock Clearcut/canopied microclimates Ecosystem management Parkland grazing conditions Regeneration rates Tree-ring growth and density Fire Ignition and growth potential Triggering events Firefighting conditions Labor force Equipment deployment Mop-up, restoration, reseeding Erosion susceptibility Frequency assessment Insect kills Descriptive indices (e.g., Haines) Lightning climatologies Slash fire planning Timber sale requirements Blowdowns Long-term climate variability
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A Climate Services Vision: First Steps Toward the Future ENGINEERING (GROUP 1) Energy Audits Heat loss calculations Utility costs Users Cities/counties/companies/ private citizens Providers Utilities Hydropower supply Rate setting Energy demand Fuel planning Strategic planning Alternative energy (climate-sensitive sources) Wind—means & extremes Passive solar Small head hydro Heat pumps Passive cooling Rel Hum, alt. fuel motor Construction Scheduling Equipment inventories Personnel hiring Outdoor painting Environmental conditions Product testing Specific conditions needed Specific conditions not needed Fog instruments Corrosion tests Uniform Building Codes Hazardous phenomena Tornadoes Lightning Hail Ice storms Tropical storms Depth of frozen soil Balloon and helicopter logging Hazard likelihood Performance standards Power line routing Stress on long atmospheric tethers Airports Runway orientation Runway length Number of runways needed Instrumentation questions Diesel low-temperature additives Chip manufacturers Vinyl glue separation Electric field studies
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A Climate Services Vision: First Steps Toward the Future ENGINEERING (GROUP 2) Design criteria Roofs Culverts, bridges, etc. Storm sewers Sanitary sewers Aquatic center pools City and industrial ponds Cooling ponds Settling ponds Sewage treatment Hazardous waste containment Mine tailings Evaporation calculations Lighting Freeze/thaw cycle climatologies Frost effects Drifting snow (depth/orientation) Dam design Boiler capacity Refrigeration needs Generators Greenhouse heating/cooling Structure orientation Structure strength Pollution dispersion Freeze probabilities Excessive values of Heat Cold Wind Rain Snowfall Snow depth Humidity Wave Erosion—causeways
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A Climate Services Vision: First Steps Toward the Future LEGAL Accidents Cars Motorcycles/bicycles Airplanes Railroads Hang gliders Falls on ice Storm damage Claims adjustors Real cause of damage?? “Act of God” or expected?? Crop damage Wind Hail Heavy rain Ocean waves Open seas/beaches Event insurance claims Outdoor gatherings/events Environmental Impact Statements Endangered Species Act needs Biological Opinions Grazing allotment decisions Ecosystem Management background Hazard Rankings Environmental Assessments Wetlands determination Construction overruns Landslides Shipment delays/difficulties Pesticide drift Crime conditions Murder/assault/violent crimes Decomposition rates Burglaries Traffic tickets Evidence reconstruction Water Landfill runoff Landfill or waste seepage Frozen/broken pipes Subdivision runoff Landlord—tenant disputes Leaky roofs Storage of household goods Industrial painting disruptions Dike/containment breaches Seed spoilage Highway sanding/plowing conditions Pollutant transport Firefighting/rescue conditions Cement hardening conditions Health/workman’s comp. Claims
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A Climate Services Vision: First Steps Toward the Future ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND OTHER Manufacturing/business development Design criteria Construction conditions Marketing and sales impacts Inventory deployment Siting of shipping facilities Relocations from afar Businesses Manufacturing plants Retirement decisions Weather-sensitive products Marketing decisions Agribusiness—development of: New crops New products New markets Outdoor gatherings Festivals Concerts Air shows Auto/air/water/foot races Motion picture filming conditions Hiring of labor Seasonal industries Construction Agriculture/migrant laborers Forestry Recreation News media Magazines Newspapers Radio TV Trade publications Historical event conditions Tourism Vacation planning Recreation climatology Hiking/camping/backpacking/ rafting/bicycling/skiing/wind-surfing/fishing/hunting/ mountain climbing/boating Health Relocation influences Skin problems Asthma/respiratory Allergies Trace chemical sensitivity Solar exposure Melanomas UV effects on vision Cloudiness climatologies Altitudinal variation of radiation Chambers of Commerce Report Inclusions National Weather Service Background Information Local forecasting studies/tools
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A Climate Services Vision: First Steps Toward the Future Classroom/Educational Other states/countries Local climatologies Climate trends Yearly/decadal fluctuations Regional climates El Niño/Southern Oscillation Global climate change Home energy and gardening needs Brochures Interpretative public displays General advice and interpretation
Representative terms from entire chapter: