2001 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Aircraft Technology Program

Committee for the Review of ONR’s Aircraft Technology Program

Naval Studies Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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2001 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Aircraft Technology Program 2001 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Aircraft Technology Program Committee for the Review of ONR’s Aircraft Technology Program Naval Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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2001 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Aircraft Technology Program National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This work was performed under Department of the Navy Contract N00014-00-G-0230, DO#8, issued by the Office of Naval Research under contract authority NR 201–124. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Department of the Navy or the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, and dispose of all or any of this work, and to authorize others so to do. International Standard Book Number 0-309-07617-X Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Copies available from: Naval Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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2001 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Aircraft Technology Program THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm.A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. Wm.A.Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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2001 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Aircraft Technology Program COMMITTEE FOR THE REVIEW OF ONR’S AIRCRAFT TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM JOSEPH B.REAGAN, Saratoga, California, Chair JOHN M.BORKY, Tamarac Technologies, LLC CARL S.CARTER, Lockheed Martin ROBERT W.DAY, Raytheon Company ALAN H.EPSTEIN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ROBERT H.GORMLEY, The Oceanus Company CHARLES E.HEBER, SRS Technologies FRANK A.HORRIGAN, Bedford, Massachusetts JAMES D.LANG, La Jolla, California DOUGLAS P.LOOZE, University of Massachusetts F.ROBERT NAKA, CERA, Inc. PHILIP D.SHUTLER, Center for Naval Analyses MARILYN J.SMITH, Georgia Institute of Technology ROBERT E.WHITEHEAD, Henrico, North Carolina DIANNE S.WILEY, Boeing Phantom Works Staff RONALD D.TAYLOR, Director CHARLES F.DRAPER, Study Director MARY G.GORDON, Information Officer SUSAN G.CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant KERRY A.M.WILLIAMS, Research Assistant SIDNEY G.REED, Consultant

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2001 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Aircraft Technology Program NAVAL STUDIES BOARD VINCENT VITTO, Charles S. Draper Laboratory, Inc., Chair JOSEPH B.REAGAN, Saratoga, California, Vice Chair DAVID R.HEEBNER, McLean, Virginia, Past Chair ALBERT J.BACIOCCO, JR., The Baciocco Group, Inc. ARTHUR B.BAGGEROER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ALAN BERMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, Special Advisor JAMES P.BROOKS, Litton/Ingalls Shipbuilding, Inc. JOHN D.CHRISTIE, Logistics Management Institute RUTH A.DAVID, Analytic Services, Inc. PAUL K.DAVIS, RAND and the RAND Graduate School of Policy Studies FRANK A.HORRIGAN, Bedford, Massachusetts RICHARD J.IVANETICH, Institute for Defense Analyses MIRIAM E.JOHN, Sandia National Laboratories DAVID V.KALBAUGH, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University ANNETTE J.KRYGIEL, Integro WILLIAM B.MORGAN, Rockville, Maryland ROBERT B.OAKLEY, National Defense University NILS R.SANDELL, JR., ALPHATECH, Inc. HARRISON SHULL, Monterey, California JAMES M.SINNETT, Ballwin, Missouri WILLIAM D.SMITH, Fayetteville, Pennsylvania JOHN P.STENBIT, Oakton, Virginia (through August 6, 2001) PAUL K.VAN RIPER, Williamsburg, Virginia MITZI M.WERTHEIM, Center for Naval Analyses Navy Liaison Representatives RADM LEWIS W.CRENSHAW, JR., USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 RADM JAY M.COHEN, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N91 Marine Corps Liaison Representative LTGEN EDWARD HANLON, JR., USMC, Commanding General, Marine Corps Combat Development Command RONALD D.TAYLOR, Director CHARLES F.DRAPER, Senior Program Officer MARY G.GORDON, Information Officer SUSAN G.CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant KERRY A.M.WILLIAMS, Research Assistant

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2001 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Aircraft Technology Program Preface The mission of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) is to maintain a close relationship with the research and development community to support long-range research, foster discovery, nurture future generations of researchers, produce new technologies that meet known naval requirements, and provide innovations in fields relevant to the future Navy and Marine Corps. Accordingly, ONR supports research activities across a broad range of scientific and engineering disciplines. As one means of ensuring that its investments appropriately address naval priorities and requirements and that its programs are of high scientific and technical quality, ONR requires that each of its departments undergo an annual review (with a detailed focus on about one-third of the reviewed department’s programs). The Aircraft Technology Program reviewed in this report resides within the Strike Technology Division (Code 351) of the Naval Expeditionary Warfare Science and Technology Department (Code 35) of ONR. At the request of ONR, the National Research Council (NRC) established the Committee for the Review of ONR’s Aircraft Technology Program to review and evaluate ONR’s Aircraft Technology Program components in the areas of integrated avionics, propulsion and power, air vehicle technology, unmanned aerial vehicles/unmanned combat air vehicles (UAVs/UCAVs), and survivability against criteria that the committee would select. In addition, the review would seek to identify promising basic (6.1), exploratory (6.2), and advanced (6.3) research topics that could be considered to support the Aircraft Technology Program. At the request of the head of ONR’s Code 35, the committee also reviewed a special aviation projects thrust. The committee met once, May 15 to 17, 2001, in Washington, D.C., to both gather information and prepare an initial draft report. The 3-day meeting was divided into two parts: the first comprised presentations by and interactions with project managers (and ONR-supported principal investigators) responsible for various program components, and the second was devoted to discussing the issues, developing consensus, and drafting the committee’s findings and recommendations. (The committee received read-ahead material from the sponsor prior to the first meeting.) The committee’s report represents its consensus views on the issues posed in the charge.

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2001 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Aircraft Technology Program Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Harold Andrews, Arlington, Virginia, Philip S.Anselmo, Northrop Grumman Corporation, Roy L.Buehler, Mableton, Georgia, Jose B.Cruz, Jr., Ohio State University, Bernard H.Paiewonsky, Institute for Defense Analyses, George S.Sebestyen, Systems Development, LLC, and Robert F.Stengel, Princeton University. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Lee M.Hunt, Alexandria, Virginia. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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2001 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Aircraft Technology Program Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   7     Context,   7     Organization of This Report,   9 2   GENERAL OBSERVATIONS   10 3   INTEGRATED AVIONICS   13     Overview,   13     Programs Reviewed,   14 4   PROPULSION AND POWER   17     Overview,   17     Programs Reviewed,   18 5   AIR VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY   21     Overview,   21     Programs Reviewed,   22 6   UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES/UNMANNED COMBAT AIR VEHICLES   29     Overview,   29     Programs Reviewed,   30

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2001 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Aircraft Technology Program 7   SURVIVABILITY   38     Overview,   38     Program Reviewed,   38 8   SPECIAL AVIATION PROJECTS   40     Overview,   40     Programs Reviewed,   41     APPENDIXES         A Biographies of Committee Members and Staff   49     B Agenda for the Meeting of the Committee for the Review of ONR’s Aircraft Technology Program   53     C Acronyms and Abbreviations   56