and subsidies from commercial partners and granting agencies also support USAMRU-K.

To date, the principal activities of USAMRU-K have included the following:

  • Investigation of basic immune responses to the malaria parasite and HIV;

  • testing of drugs against the malaria parasite and HIV and testing of antimalarial drugs and drug resistance;

  • development and testing of simplified diagnostics for malaria, leishmaniasis, and dengue;

  • epidemiology and control of vector-borne diseases; and

  • epidemic response (e.g., Rift Valley fever and Marburg virus infection).

A subcommittee of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee to Review the Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System visited USAMRU-K from October 16 to 20, 2000. The subcommittee consisted of committee members Kathleen Gensheimer, James Hospedales, and Guénaël Rodier. G.Rodier was recalled on October 17 to coordinate the World Health Organization (WHO) response to an epidemic of viral hemorrhagic fever in Uganda. A list of the people met and the itinerary followed can be found at the end of this chapter.

LABORATORY

In 1985, KEMRI took occupancy of new laboratory facilities in Nairobi, and USAMRU-K headquarters were moved into this new KEMRI space. Research teams from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) are also collocated on the KEMRI campus.

In Nairobi, USAMRU-K headquarters are housed within the KEMRI Clinical Research Center, 1 of 10 KEMRI centers. In addition to a floor of laboratories and offices that house bacteriology, entomology, parasitology, and molecular biology activities at USAMRU-K headquarters in Nairobi, field operations are maintained at the western location of Kisian on Lake Victoria (for malaria studies) and at the high-elevation site of Kericho (for HIV studies). Smaller sites are maintained at Kisii in the highlands (for cerebral malaria), Baringo in the Rift Valley (for leishmaniasis), and Kilifi on the coast (for dengue). Limited virological capabilities are available within KEMRI through the KEMRI Center for Virus Research, a WHO Collaborating Center for Arbovirus and Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Reference and Research. This laboratory is not directly ad-



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