An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories

Fiscal Year 2001

Board on Assessment of NIST Programs

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

National Research Council

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C.



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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2001 An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories Fiscal Year 2001 Board on Assessment of NIST Programs Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C.

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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the Board and panels responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. 50SBNB8C1003 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, an agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Additional copies of this report are available from: Board on Assessment of NIST Programs National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2001 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm.A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I.Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. Wm.A.Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2001 BOARD ON ASSESSMENT OF NIST PROGRAMS LINDA CAPUANO, Honeywell, Chair ROBERT M.NOWAK, Michigan Molecular Institute, Vice Chair ROSS B.COROTIS, University of Colorado at Boulder HERWIG KOGELNIK, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies SYED Z.SHARIQ, Stanford University Ex Officio Members ROBERT A.ALTENKIRCH, Mississippi State University JANET S.BAUM, Health, Education & Research Associates, Inc. RALPH K.CAVIN III, Semiconductor Research Corporation RICHARD A.CURLESS, Cincinnati Machine, a UNOVA Company MARVIN F.DeVRIES, University of Wisconsin-Madison JAMES ECONOMY, University of Illinois JANET S.FENDER, Air Force Research Laboratory ARLENE A.GARRISON, University of Tennessee LOU ANN HEIMBROOK, Agere Systems DAVID W.JOHNSON, JR., Agere Systems LORI S.NYE, Consultant, Mountain View, California TONY SCOTT, General Motors Corporation JAMES W.SERUM, Viaken Systems, Inc. NEVILLE V.SMITH, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory LOUISE H.TREVILLYAN, IBM T.J.Watson Research Center Board Staff DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director ELIZABETH L.GROSSMAN, Program Officer BARBARA JONES, Administrative Assistant

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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2001 Preface This volume represents the 42nd annual assessment by the National Research Council (NRC) of the technical quality and relevance of the programs of the Measurement and Standards Laboratories of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This assessment is the work of 143 members of the NRC’s Board on Assessment of NIST Programs and its panels. These individuals were chosen by the NRC for their technical expertise, their practical experience in running research programs, and their knowledge of industry’s needs in basic measurements and standards. Each has given of his or her time without remuneration to participate in this assessment process. I am continually impressed with the amount of time and energy that these review participants are willing to give to this assessment process. In a period when professional demands seem to press more and more strongly on everyone, these individuals have taken six to seven days total away from their jobs, on average, to participate in this assessment. Their willingness to do so speaks to the importance they attach to the NIST mission and to their commitment to the idea of striving for improved performance through performance measurement. I wish to thank the expert members of the Board and panels for their participation in and dedication to this process. Without their willingness to contribute their time and expertise, NIST would be deprived of a valuable management tool. I am also impressed with the responsiveness of NIST to the findings of the Board and its panels. NIST managers and scientists have treated the assessment process as an opportunity to gain fresh insight into their programs and customers and have modified their plans and programs according to these insights. It is reassuring to see a federal agency so committed to program excellence and responsiveness to customer needs. The success of this assessment is dependent upon NIST cooperation and receptiveness to the inquiries and activities of the Board and panels. We thank NIST staff for the time spent in meeting with Board and panel members, as well as the time spent in preparing background information for them. In 2001, NIST celebrates the centennial of its founding as the National Bureau of Standards in 1901. The contributions that this agency has made to the common good, to the advancement of national interests, and to the advancement of science and engineering in those 100 years are widely recognized. NIST can be

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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2001 proud of the many and diverse achievements its staff have realized over its history. The Board and panel members join me in congratulating the current staff on this milestone in the agency’s history. In carrying out this assessment, the Board and panels sought to meet the specific charge given by NIST and reproduced in Appendix A. I hope that the readers of this report find it to be fully responsive to the charge and that those with responsibility for oversight of NIST programs will regard this report as a useful tool in efforts to continually improve the programs of that respected institution. Linda Capuano, Chair Board on Assessment of NIST Programs

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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2001 Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Ronald L.Alpert, Factory Mutual Research Corporation, Robert Blancett, U.S. Gypsum Research and Technology, Inc., Steven J.Bomba, sjBomba Company, Rinn Cleavelin, International SEMATECH, John W.Coburn, IBM Almaden (retired), R.Graham Cooks, Purdue University, Simon Gibbs, Sony Electronics, Inc., Alastair M.Glass, Lucent Technologies, Phillip Gould, University of Connecticut, Andrew J.Hazelton, Nikon Research Corporation of America, Roger F.Hoyt, IBM Technology Group, Jeremy Isenberg, Weidlinger Associates, Inc., Brian W.Kernighan, Princeton University, James McElroy, National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, Peter G.Neumann, SRI International, James B.Nottke, DuPont Company (retired), John R.Rice, Purdue University, Harvey W.Schadler, General Electric Corporate Research and Development (retired),

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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2001 Don W.Shaw, Texas Instruments, Inc. (retired), James J.Solberg, Purdue University, Neal Sullivan, Schlumberger Semiconductor Solutions, James S.Thorp, Cornell University, Barry M.Trost, Stanford University, John L.Volakis, University of Michigan, John B.Wachtman, Jr., Rutgers University (retired), C.Grant Willson, University of Texas, and James C.Wyant, University of Arizona. Although the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Norman Hackerman, the Robert A.Welch Foundation, appointed by the NRC’s Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2001 Contents 1   The State of the Laboratories   1     Technical Merit of Laboratory Programs,   1     Relevance and Effectiveness of Laboratory Programs,   2     Impact of Resources on Technical Programs,   5     Progress Toward a NIST-wide Strategic Plan,   6 2   Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory   9     Laboratory-Level Review,   11     Divisional Reviews,   16     Electricity Division,   16     Semiconductor Electronics Division,   25     Radio-Frequency Technology Division,   33     Electromagnetic Technology Division,   38     Optoelectronics Division,   45     Magnetic Technology Division,   51     Office of Microelectronics Programs,   57     Office of Law Enforcement Standards,   57     Major Observations,   58 3   Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory   61     Laboratory-Level Review,   63     Divisional Reviews,   68     Precision Engineering Division,   68     Manufacturing Metrology Division,   73     Intelligent Systems Division,   76     Manufacturing Systems Integration Division,   80     Major Observations,   82

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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2001 4   Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory   83     Laboratory-Level Review,   85     Divisional Reviews,   90     Biotechnology Division,   90     Process Measurements Division,   96     Surface and Microanalysis Science Division,   102     Physical and Chemical Properties Division,   111     Analytical Chemistry Division,   118     Major Observations,   127 5   Physics Laboratory   129     Laboratory-Level Review,   131     Divisional Reviews,   135     Electron and Optical Physics Division,   135     Atomic Physics Division,   139     Optical Technology Division,   145     Ionizing Radiation Division,   149     Time and Frequency Division,   156     Major Observations,   161 6   Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory   163     Laboratory-Level Review,   165     Divisional Reviews,   167     Ceramics Division,   167     Materials Reliability Division,   171     Polymers Division,   175     Metallurgy Division,   179     Major Observations,   182     Review of the NIST Center for Neutron Research,   183 7   Building and Fire Research Laboratory   193     Laboratory-Level Review,   195     Divisional Reviews,   202     Structures Division,   202     Building Materials Division,   206     Building Environment Division.   213     Fire Research Division,   218     Office of Applied Economics and Standards and Codes Services,   224     Major Observations,   228 8   Information Technology Laboratory   229     Laboratory-Level Review,   231     Divisional Reviews,   238     Mathematical and Computational Sciences Division,   238     Advanced Networking Technologies Division,   243     Computer Security Division,   247

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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2001     Information Access Division,   252     Convergent Information Systems Division,   257     Information Services and Computing Division,   264     Software Diagnostics and Conformance Testing Division,   267     Statistical Engineering Division,   271     Major Observations,   275 9   Microelectronics   277     Purpose of the Review,   279     Description of the NIST Microelectronics Program,   279     Assessment of the NIST Microelectronics Program,   280     Technical Applicability of Current Projects,   280     Program Relevance and Effectiveness,   284     Major Observations,   286     Appendixes         A Charge to the Board and Panels   289     B Agendas for Meetings of Board on Assessment of NIST Programs   293     C Functions of NIST   297     D NIST Organization   299     E Acronyms and Abbreviations   303

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