obtaining information not only for nonmovers and inmovers, but also for outmovers (Census Day residents not resident on interview day). The PES-C procedure involved estimating the P-sample match rate for movers by matching outmovers.

At the same time, for most post-strata, the A.C.E. estimated the number of matched movers by applying the outmover match rate to inmovers. The underlying assumption is that inmovers would be more completely reported than outmovers. The advantage of PES-C is that the searching operation for the Census Day residence of inmovers is not required. The potential drawback is that the quality of the information collected to use in the matching for outmovers may be impaired because their information is always supplied by other people.

Targeted Extended Search Procedures

Another important change from the 1990 PES concerned the TES procedure for searching surrounding blocks if a search in the sampled block cluster did not turn up a match for a P-sample household and to find out if misgeocoded E-sample cases were located nearby. In 1990, one ring, or sometimes two rings, of blocks surrounding each sample block cluster were searched for additional P-sample matches and E-sample correct enumerations. The purpose was to reduce the variance and bias of the DSE estimates. For efficiency reasons, it was decided for the 2000 A.C.E. to target the extended search and to conduct it on a sample basis.

Definition of Post-Strata

The 448 post-strata in 2000 (reduced to 416 for estimating DSEs) were similar to the 357 post-strata that were implemented in the reestimation of the 1990 PES.12 The 2000 post-strata included two additional race/ethnicity domains, one for American Indians and Alaska Natives not living on reservations and another for Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islanders (who had been combined with Asians in 1990). The 2000 post-strata also categorized non-Hispanic whites and other races, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics by mail return rate (two categories—high and low—calculated separately for each group by tenure). Region was dropped as a stratifier except for people in the non-Hispanic white and other race category who owned their homes.


See Thompson (1992); U.S. Census Bureau (1992a). The original 1990 estimation used 1,392 strata together with a composite estimation procedure to smooth the resulting DSEs (see Hogan, 1992).

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