policy. The privatization of the R&D and innovation processes, combined with the increased diversity in the industry, raise legitimate concerns about access to the latest and best technology for all industry participants, regardless of size, business model (independent versus contract), or other structural characteristics. Consequently, a public-policy response to increase access to technology, target disenfranchised groups, serve a broader constituency, and evaluate (as well as include as part of funding criteria) the structural impacts of R&D investments is appropriate.

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