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Internationa! Role of U.S. Geoscience Committee on Global and International Geology Board on Earth Sciences Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1987

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Medicine. The members of the committee special competences and with regard for NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of responsible for the report were chosen for their appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1862, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and-technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in its selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of government. Functioning in accordance the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. furthering knowledge and of advising the federal with general policies determined by the Academy, Support for this project was provided under general funds for the Board on Earth Sciences through the following agencies: the National Science Foundation, U.S. Geological Survey, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Agency, National Geodetic Survey (NOAA), Department of Energy, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Available from Committee on Global and International Geology Board on Earth Sciences 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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COMMITTEE ON GLOBAL AND INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGY B. Clark Burchfiel, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chairman Clarence R. Allen, California Institute of Technology G. Arthur Barber, Deep Observation and Sampling of the Earth Continental Crust (DOSECC), Washington, D.C. Kevin Burke, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston John C. Crowell, University of California, Santa Barbara Doris M. Curtis (consulting geologist) Bellaire, Texas Edward A. Flinn, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. L S William K. Gealey (consulting geologist) Mill Valley, California Linn Hoover, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia (deceased) John A. Reinemund, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. Sigmund Snelson, Shell Development Company, Houston Liaison Member William R. Greenwood, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia Staff William E. Benson, Senior Staff Officer This report is dedicated to the late Linn Hoover. An editorial written by Dr. Hoover, a member of this committee, in February 1985 focuses on international geoscience cooperation and is pertinent to this report. His editorial is given in Appendix A. . , . 111

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BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES W. G. Ernst, ~ Robin Brett, U.S. Geological Survey Randolph W. Bromery, University of Massachusetts Lawrence M. Cathles, Cornell University Larry W. Finger, Carnegie Institution of Washington Robert N. Ginsburg, University of Miami Alexander F. H. Goetz, University of Colorado Kate H. Hadley, Exxon Company, U.S.A. Michel T. Halbouty, M. T. Halbouty Energy Company Joseph V. Smith, University of Chicago Sean C. Solomon, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Steven Stanley, Johns Hopkins University George A. Thompson, Stanford University Donald L. Turcotte, Cornell University University of California, Los Angeles, Chairman U.S. Geological Ex-Officio Members Paul B. Barton, Jr., U.S. Geological Survey Donald M. Hunten, University of Arizona Liaison Members Miriam Baltuck, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Andrew Murphy, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Philip Cohen, U.S. Geological Survey Bruce Doe, U.S. Geological Survey Robert M. Hamilton, TT .R ~.v. Geological Survey Bruce B. Hanshaw, 28th International Geological Congress James F. Hays, National Science Foundation John G. Heacock, Office of Naval Research Donald F. Heinrichs, National Science Foundation Marvin E. Kauffman, American Geological Institute William M. Kaula, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ben Kelly, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers George A. Kolstad, Department of Energy Ian D. MacGregor, National Science Foundation Dallas L. Peck, U.S. Geological Survey John J. Schanz, Jr., Congressional Research Service Shelby G. Tilford, NASA Raymond Watts, U.S. Geological Survey Kenneth N. Weaver, Maryland Geological Survey Arthur J. Zeizel, Federal Emergency Management Agency Joseph W. Berg, Jr., Staff Director William E. Benson, Senior Staff Officer iv

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COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND RESOURCES Norman Hackerman, National Research Council, Chairman Clarence R. Allen, California Institute of Technology Thomas D. Barrow, Standard Oil Company (retired) Elkan R. Blout, Harvard Medical School George F. Carrier, Harvard University Dean E. Eastman, IBM T. J. Watson Research Center Joseph L. Fisher, Office of the President, George Mason University William A. Fowler, California Institute of Technology Gerhart Friedlander, Brookhaven National Laboratory Mary L. Good, Allied Signal Corporation Phillip A. Griffiths, Duke University J. Ross Macdonald, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Charles J. Mankin, Oklahoma Geological Survey Perry L. McCarty, Stanford University William D. Phillips, Mallinckrodt, Inc. Richard J. Reed, University of Washington Robert E. Sievers, University of Colorado Edward C. Stone, Jr., California Institute of Technology Karl K. Turekian, Yale University George W. Wetherill, Carnegie Institution of Washington Irving Wladawsky-Berger, IBM Corporation Raphael C. Rasper, Executive Director Lawrence E. McCray, Associate Executive Director v

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PREFACE During the past decade increasing concern has been expressed over the deteriorating position of U.S. geoscientists in international activities, such as the inadequacy of U.S. support for the International Geological Correlation Program (IGCP). Our competitive position has been steadily eroded through declining U.S. activities at the same time that other countries (e.g., France, Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, Japan, and the USSR) are mounting vigorous international programs with broad government support. H. D. Hedberg, originator of the IGCP, and W. G. Ernst, then chairman of the Geology Section of the National Academy of Sciences, requested an evaluation of the situation. Initial response involved a workshop on U.S. participation in International Cooperation in Science and Technology. A more complete response assigned the study of the international situation to the Geological Sciences Board, now the Board on Earth Sciences. The board in turn established the Committee on Global and International Geology and charged it to report on all aspects of American participation in international geologic activities--academic, governmental, and industrial--and to recommend how current involvement could be improved and strengthened.* The full committee met three times and consulted with numerous other geoscientists in gathering the data for its report and recommendations. This report primarily addresses decision-makers in governmental and nongovernmental organizations. Support of the Board on Earth Sciences and this committee by the following federal agencies is gratefully acknowledged: National Science Foundation, U.S. Geological Survey, Department of Energy, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. *The full charge to the committee is given in Appendix B. . . V11

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CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. INTRODUCTION 2. INTERNATIONAL GEOSCIENCE ACTIVITIES IN U.S. FOREIGN POLICY Background and Significance, 7 Evolution of the Geoscience Role in Mineral Policy, Foreign Policy, and National Security, 9 Mineral Policy, 9 Foreign Policy, 12 Summary, 15 1 5 3. INTERNATIONAL GEOSCIENCE ACTIVITIES IN U.S. ECONOMIC INTERESTS 16 Background, 16 Evolution of Geoscience Activities Abroad in Relation to U.S. Economic Interests, 17 Energy and Mineral Resources, 18 Seabed Resources, 22 Polar Studies, 23 Geologic Hazards and the Environment, 23 Remote Sensing 9& Summary, 26 ~ - ~ cat, Contractual Services and Equipment Market, 26 INTERNATIONAL GEOSCIENCE ACTIVITIES IN U.S. SCIENTIFIC INTERESTS 28 Background, 28 Evolution of International Geoscience Activities, 30 The International Geological Congress, 30 The International Union of Geological Sciences, 31 The International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, 32 The IGY and Its Successors, 32 1X Sciences, 31

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The International Geological Correlation Program, 33 Earth System Science, 33 Intergovernmental Activities, 34 Agency-Sponsored Programs, 34 The Situation Today, 35 Summary, 35 SUMMARY OF NEEDS Summary of Needs, 37 Recommendations, 38 REFERENCES APPENDIXES A The View from the Moscow Meeting, by Linn Hoover, 47 B Charge to the Committee on Global and International Geology, 49 C Evolution and Importance of International Activitie in the Geosciences, A Background Paper by John C. Crowell, William E. Benson, and John A. Reinemund, 50 D A More Global Tech View, by Eugene B. Skolnikoff, 5 E Statement on Science in the International Setting a Adopted by the National Science Board, 61 F Letter to G.A. Barber Listing Banks with Interests Foreign Minerals, 66 G Minerals Industry Status Report, by G.A. Barber, 68 H A Partial Survey of Production and Availability of Foreign Geoscience Maps, compiled by D.M. Curtis, 71 Statement of William P. Pendley, Deputy Assistant Secretary, Energy and Minerals, Department of the Interior, Before the Committee on Science and Technology, July 28, 1981, 74 J U.S. Geological Survey International Cooperative Agreements Currently in Force, 78 K Cooperative Science with Hungary, 82 L Participating Agency Service Agreement (PASA) Between the Agency for International Development and U.S. Department of Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 87 M Fourth International Symposium on Mineral Resources of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (Geo-Resources and Environment), 91 N International Centre for Training and Geological Exchanges (ICTGE), 93 x 37 41 45