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5. SUMMARY OF NEEDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS SUMMARY OF NEEDS International geoscience activities are required and needed more than ever before to support U.S. economic interests by adequate use of geoscientists in U.S. international programs, and to advance our basic scientific knowledge. Our report emphasizes the breadth of international geoscience involvement in the advancement of American __ and societal interests. From consultation with geoscientists from government, industry, and academia, the committee has identified many areas where U.S. geoscience personnel are inadequately utilized, geoscience information is not economic fully exploited, and support for basic geoscience research can be improved. Some of the important areas that should be strengthened are as follows: 1. The use of international geoscience in development and implementation of foreign policy. (a) Develop procedures for routinely identifying geoscience contributions in policy issues. (b) Develop mechanisms for interagency coordination, policy review, and implementation. (c) Define new initiatives in foreign policy based on geoscience considerations. Inasmuch as this application involves foreign policy, the Department of State must play a key role in these efforts. Implementation will require enhanced funding for the recruitment of geoscience professionals by the Department of State. 2. The use of international geoscience in U.S. economic interests. (a) Improve competitive status abroad. (b) Improve flow and exchange of relevant geoscience information by scientific attache and regional resource officer programs. (In this connection the committee commends the Department of State's recent decision to provide more training for--and increase the responsibilities of--its regional resource officers.) 37

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38 3. Expanded international support for basic geoscience by American researchers. (a) Increase our capacity for geoscience consultation and assistance through scientific exchange. (b) Provide more adequate support for existing and future science and technology agreements. (c) Become further involved and provide greater support for intergovernmental organizations and international scientific organizations. (d) Enhance expertise in global geoscience, and stimulate international research. A number of agencies are concerned, but a revival and an expansion of NSF, NASA, and ICSU activities are obviously needed here. Support for other international geoscience activities. (a) Develop new initiatives in Third World countries. (b) Facilitate publication and distribution of Third World maps, reports, and translations of geoscience data. (c) Develop a centralized inventory and coordination facility for: (i) map storage and availability inventory, (ii) a report library that includes, for example, papers in nonrefereed journals and open-file reports, (iii~data systems, including commodities and satellite information, and (iv) a roster of U.S. research and research workers involved in foreign projects. Strengthening some of the above-mentioned areas at a time of severe budget constraints without seriously damaging other important programs will require careful and skillful action. In some cases, substantial gains can be made without significant funding changes. For example, a post in a foreign country might be filled by someone with geological training rather than by a nonspecialist. An American geologist might be hired instead of a foreign geologist. A premises might be placed on foreign service as a step in a geological career in government agencies. In other cases' modest increments in funding might be used effectively and with great leverage. Finally, a small amount of money spent to bring American and foreign geoscientists together for planning sessions can stimulate substantial active bilateral or multilateral projects. RECOMMENDATIONS Having considered the importance of international geoscience programs in formulating and implementing some foreign policy issues, in advancing U.S. political, economic, and scientific interests abroad, and in providing information on world resources, programs, and institutions, the committee believes that support for international geoscience should be given higher priority in allocating funds and in developing and coordinating international geoscience activities of

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39 federal agencies. Accordingly, the committee recommends that federal funding for international geoscience activities should be increased. The range of activities that should be strengthened and improved is so broad that no existing group or organization is equipped to advise, recommend, or implement all the necessary changes, which include strengthening geoscience assistance and cooperation; establishing and coordinating the flow of geological resource information from abroad to meet our scientific, economic, and political needs; and increasing support for basic geoscience research. We need a long-term mechanism for overseeing current and future needs. Therefore the committee recommends the establishment of an American Office of Global Geosciences. Such an office would be a small nongovernmental organization that would be concerned with geoscience activities on an international scale, and would be supported by both public and private funds. Important activities could include the following: (1) to identify the international interests of the United States that can be fostered and maintained through geoscience activities abroad and to help implement the specific types of activity required to do so; (2) to define mechanisms to strengthen and coordinate U.S. geoscience programs abroad; (3) to plan a centralized mechanism for systematically acquiring and inventorying geological maps, reports, and raw data on foreign geology and resources; and (4) to serve as a central office for international geoscience information and contacts to advance basic research. An office would be an efficient way to coordinate and focus efforts of the wide variety of international geoscience activities. Most important, it would provide daily attention to these matters rather than intermittent consideration by separate or ad hoc groups. Suggestions on the activities to be undertaken by the office should come, not only from the entire geoscience community, but from other interested parties as well. The areas that are listed here as needing strengthening are regarded as only examples of some of the contemporary issues that should come under the purview of the office. The issues will change constantly. Through constant monitoring of the international geoscience scene, the office could be prepared to make recommendations before crises develop and reaction to crises would be based on sufficient background information. The committee has determined that both governmental and nongovernmental interests abroad are so intimately involved with, and served by, international geoscience programs and activities, that support from both governmental and nongovernmental sources should be solicited in strengthening such programs and activities. Moreover the committee has had expressions of interest in support of the office from both petroleum and mining companies. To facilitate the planning of programs and activities that serve both governmental and nongovernmental groups and that will lead to support from both, the committee further recommends that the advisory group for the Office include both governmental and nongovernmental representation. Governmental agencies that would be especially concerned would include the Department of State, the Department of Interior (USGS and U.S.

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40 Bureau of Mines), NASA, and the NSF. The Departments of Commerce, Energy, and Defense would also be concerned. Because of the urgency of the need to address the problems raised in the body of this report. the committee urges an immediate infusion of new funding for existing U.S. agencies concerned with the international aspects of the geosciences, especially earmarked for these functions. These agencies include the Office of International Programs and Division of Earth Sciences of the NSF, the International Mapping Office of the USGS, and the Earth Applications Section of NASA. Lesser roles involving international mineral resource evaluation the Bureau and development are played by the Department of State, DOE of Mines, and NOAA, but these programs, too, need direct augmentation of support. When established, the Office of Global Geosciences would draw support from the above agencies as well as from industrial and private sources. Initially, the Office should be inaugurated under the jurisdiction of an organization concerned about the global geoscience problems raised in this report, and dedicated to their amelioration or solution. Appropriate alternative configurations might include (1) a consortium of federal agencies (Bureau of Mines, USGS, NSF, NASA, DOE, etch (2) a working group of professional earth science societies (Society of Exploration Geophysicists, AAPG, GSA, AGU); (3) the AGI; or (4) a board or panel of the NRC (Board on Earth Sciences, Board on Mineral and Energy Resources) .

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REFERENCES Agnew, A. F. 1983. International Minerals: A National Perspective. Westview Press, Boulder, Colo., 164 pp. Arita, K. 1985. Japan's technical cooperation with developing countries. Journal of Japanese Trade and Industry, Mar./April, pp. 14-16. Brown, E. D. 1983. Deep-sea mining, the consequences of failure to agree at UNCLOS III. Natural Resources Forum, Vol. 7, No. 1, January, pp. 55-70, Graham and Trotman, London. Central Treaty Organization. 1959. Conference on minerals: Office of the U.S. Economic Coordinator for CENTO Affairs, U.S. Embassy, Airkara, U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C. Clark, A., C. Johnson, and P. Chinn. 1984. Assessment of cobalt-rich manganese crusts in the Hawaiian, Johnston, and Palmyra Islands' exclusive economic zones. Natural Resources Forum, Vol. 8, No. 2, April, pp. 163-174, Graham and Trotman, London. Congres International de Geologie 1880. Comptes rendus stenographique, Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, 313 pp. (1878~. Coordinating Committee for Joint Prospecting for Minerals Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (CCOP). 1980. International Decade of Ocean Exploration, Studies in East Asian Tectonics and Resources (SEATAR), in cooperation with the Intergovernmental Oceanography Commission, UNESCO (IOC): CCOP Project Office, Bangkok, 257 pp. Dorr, J. V. N., III. 1969. The physiographic, stratigraphic, and structural development of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero, Minas Gerais, Brazil. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 641-A, 110 pp. Eckel, E. B. 1982. The Geological Society of America; Life History of a Learned Society. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colo. 167 pp. Eckes, A. E., Jr. 1979. The United States and the Global Struggle for Minerals. University of Texas Press, Austin, 353 pp. Ericksen, G. E., C. and P. A. Bernardo, and E. Ruiz. 1963. Development, organization, and operation of the Instituto de Investigaciones Geologicas of Chile, in Natural Resources, Vol. II of United States papers prepared for the United Nations Conference on the Application of Science and Technology for the Benefit of the Less Developed Areas. U.S. Goverment Printing Office, Washington, D.C., pp. 45-52. 41

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42 Flipse, J. E. 1982. Ocean mining and minerals from the sea, in Yankee Mariner and Sea Power, America's Challenge of Ocean Space. Center for Study of the American Experience, Univ. of Southern California, Conference papers, March 1981, pp. 223-237. Greene, M. T. 1982. Geology in the Nineteenth Century. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y., 324 pp. International Economic Studies Institute. 1976. Raw Materials and Foreign Policy, Westview Press, Boulder, Colo. 416 pp. International Union of Geological Sciences. 1961. Circular letter 6. Jacobsen, H. S., C. T. Pierson, and others. 1969. Mineral investigations of northeast Thailand. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper, 618 pp. Khan, H. M., and J. A. Reinemund. 1963. A cooperative mineral exploration and development program in Pakistan. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper, pp. 71-89. Kursten, M. O. C. 1983. The role of metallic mineral resources for countries of the Third World. Natural Resources Forum, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 71-79, Graham and Trotman, London. Kuroda, M. 1985. Japan's policy on economic cooperation, Journal of Japanese Trade and Industry, Mar./April 1985, pp. 10-13. Landsberg, H. H. 1964. Natural Resources for U.S. Growth Resources for the Future, Inc., Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Md. 260 pp. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA Advisory Council. 1986. Earth System Science: Overview. Report of the Earth System Sciences Committee. Washington, D.C., 47 pp. National Commission on Materials Policy. 1973. Material Needs and the Environment Today and Tomorrow: Final report of the Commission Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. National Research Council, Board on Earth Sciences. 1983. Opportunities for Research in the Geological Sciences. Report of an ad hoc committee. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 95 PP National Research Council, Space Application Board. 1985. Remote Sensing from Space: A Program in Crisis. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 98 pp. National Research Council, U.S. Committee for an International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. 1986. Global Change in the Geosphere-Biosphere. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 91 PP ~ Netherlands Contact Commission of IGC. 1959. Proposal to reconsider the desirability of establishing an international geological union. Manuscript memorandum. August 9. Paley Commission. 1952. Resources for Freedom. Vol. 1, Foundations for Growth and Security. Report to the President by the President's Materials Policy Commission, 184 pp. Reinemund, J. A. 1984. Significance of the Circum-Pacific Map Project as a mechanism of geoscience cooperations and research, Geologische Jahrbach, Hannover', Vol. A75, pp. 11-26.

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43 Reinemund, J. A., P. W. Guild, and W. O. Addicott. 1982. The Circum-Pacific Map Project: framework for international resources assessment, Transactions, Third Circum-Pacific Energy and Mineral Resources Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, August 22-26; Tulsa, Okla. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, pp. 677-694. Rowland, R. W., M. R. Good, and B. A. McGregor. 1983. The U.S. exclusive economic zone--a summary of its geology, exploration, and resource potential. U.S. Geol. Surv. Circ. 912, 29 pp. Schultz, G. C. 1984. Testimony before House Foreign Affairs Committee, 9 February 1984 (from U.S. Department of State Current Policy No. 548), U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Steidle, E. 1952. Mineral forecast 2000 A.D. Penn. State College Bull. Vol. XLVI, No. 4, January 25, 152 pp. Taylor, G. C., Jr. 1976. Historical review of the international water resources program of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1940-70. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 911, 146 pp. U.S. Geological Survey. 1968. Bibliography of reports resulting from U.S. Geological Survey participation in the United States technical assistance program, 1940-67. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1263, 68 pp. U.S. Geological Survey. 1976. Bibliography of reports resulting from U.S. Geological Survey scientific and technical cooperation with other countries, 1975 to June 1980. U.S. Geol. Surv. Open File Rep. 82-896, 114 pp. Wallerstein, M. B., ed. 1984. Scientific and Technical Cooperation Among Industrialized Countries--The role of the United States. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 259 pp. Wrather, W. E. 1952. Report of the chairman, U.S. delegation to the 19th International Geological Congress, Algiers, Manuscript report.

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APPENDIXES

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Appendix A THE VI EW FROM THE MOS COW MEETING by Linn Hoover The 27th International Geological Congress, held in the Soviet Union in August 1984, provided a clear reminder of the importance, if not the necessity, of international cooperation in research in the geological sciences. The broad scope of scientific papers, the variety of well-attended field excursions, and the exchange of scientific ideas and research results among more than 5,000 geologists from some 90 countries showed how much the geological sciences depend upon international cooperation to achieve further progress. For geology, unlike most other fields of science, the ultimate laboratory is the entire earth, and its practitioners need access to all parts of that laboratory at all times. The only way they can obtain it is through open and unfettered participation in research programs by all of the world's countries. In recent years, the record of worldwide research cooperation has been pretty good. The pattern was established by the International Geophysical Year, which demonstrated the great advantages accruing from an international program of planned research on clearly defined topics. The ICY set an example for similarly organized programs concerned exclusively with research on solid earth problems. We recall the Upper Mantle Project and the International Geodynamics Project as forerunners of the current International Lithosphere Program, and we can point to the International Geological Correlation Program, the international phase of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, and the International Hydrological Decade as other successful ventures in international scientific cooperation. Linn Hoover, a member of the Committee on Global and International Geology, died of a heart attack on February 8, 1985. The following article, written shortly before his death, summarizes his thoughts on the need for and value of international cooperation in the geological sciences. Originally published as an editorial in the February 1985 issue of Geology, it is reprinted here with the permission of the Geological Society of America as a tribute to Dr. Hoover's contributions to international scientific affairs. 47

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Appendix L PARTICIPATING AGENCY SERVICE AGREEMENT (PASA) BETWEEN THE AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND U.S. DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR. U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 87

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88 l _~ Impel ',5~1~ o am, tow, Yr.J '/a 3/~/83 ~ P - ~ ~~ of we'd - of. 12/31/84 J.~ [A TOY ~ As5IGNEO-_ 0~n of Fit EI CURRENT Y"R PASA PARTICtPATtN<; AGENCY SERVICE AGREEMENT B~ - =l AGE - R I~RNATlO~^L OBVELO~ ANT O.S. DEPARTMENT ~ ~1 ~ lOR U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURGES Geologic and Hydrologic Hazards Training Program 5 P~o~lG'~A', _ ~:~ a. Pace BOF-0000-P-IC-3064-01 8. a~m~/A`o~wo"~- WORLDWIDE/OFDA 9. 7~- ~ 10.Y_ _ 9~ GRANT a LOAN f~ t964 t~ FORWARD FUNDING I _ ~ ~ _ A. (t) Aool~ N~r (21 ^61~t ~r (33 ~an*;~ - C'TATIONS n 1 1X103 S ~X84l Oi OO~NG45 07 43 03 9 3. fO R i9ART1 CIPATI N`; l I 13 In~ or C~ (2) C~ {~* o, _} (3) I._ Toml AG ENCY S 1 S 7, 600 S 3 63 . 7 S ~ 49~1~ 0 C ~ ED ~U ~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ in.ti" or G`~*. t23 Che ~ ~ Oi_ ~ S 84,5;1 ~ S84.551 ~ _o~r | ~1, ~~ ,c~ ~ | ~;, c~.~g. i-~_~ 1 I31 N~ ~ ~_ IS7* ~ 600 S 468 ~ 301 ~ S60S ~ 901 lC:~L 35f ~t) S~. Oiff~tl~ (2) ~rs ~o=es~n ~nctt~~~lrtg ~ = CO M PC ~ ENTS ~ F .~ S~fit' 9 - 3 i~ l `81oc~c B) S 20*385 SL65.400 57*'* C 37 i SLC-*.?2~* t2. Scs:~n ot ~u~ iu ~ary The purpose ar chis PASA ~mendacot between che U.S. Geatogical Survey (USGS) and A.~.D. is to conduct a gealogic and hydrologic hazards-trasniy progr~. and co prov~de OFDA assiscance in developing hezard abatement axpertsse worldwide co seve [ives and reduce economic losses in couneries where geologic and hydrologic hazards are prevalene. Thss a~endment funds services chrough December 31, 1984. All other eer~s and conditions of ehe agreemene, noe specifically changed by ehis doc~=ent, remain as prevsously negoeiated. t3. GOVERNING PQ0VISIONS; Pursuans to trte Gene~ Agreemenr datea eor'~a=, :, 96' tetween AlO ~na:n. DeDar ~ent of Inter~or ttle ~q.nc~ nemea ~oove a-trees ~ orov,~e rile serv~ce' outl~nea ~n B!oex ,2 amot~fi" as nc - ~o b, Agoeno~x A, ~n'.~s otner - ,'. autr~or':ea tv A10, a~l serv~ce' see`' o. of 'J.S. or~q~n. ~ny aeoono~ce' t:~ ~ ttl~~ i3AS~. , , _ _ .. 14. S-~r" ,//~ ,NAM e~ C. ~r~e ~ aF"'cC .4ssistant Oirector for Pronra~s c^TE 2~' G~ /9~ - - ~ 5. A ooena ~c~ - ~ -?oe.`Jotx A SC-`P'- Of ~OR,C - ' APoo~otx 3 3UOGE, '~ ~^ME d<'~ . ~ 11la r~lT~_E;'8 C)HiEF. I NTERt~lAT'L 3` I NTERAGE?~; ~ 3i4Ai.C C)fr~C ~ ONTRAC'~lAbJAGc.\lE>JT AlO oArE . 'wx ~ ~ I ~ 6. ~690tlat~nq Cftiell~l '/ ~ ~10: C.~/SOO/~1~ =,_'-nn .i. Jun.an _ ~PP~:bJ~tX C - USE OF AlO P~i?sO~J~lEL~FAC:t~l~tES ~ ~PC.NOIX ~ SU8CChJ7RACTING i AiGc~CY :)01' SGS: r 2e 3enean ~ ~T~6R/Ref-~E~c '0oendix E - 3~" _ng ~ ~ 4~d ~ ~ - ~S(^ ~.~r ~_- ;~; ___ _ - a~ .- .~

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89 APPtHOt: ~ SCOPE 0' ~~x -,,,. 1 .~ 2 IlETW~ OH - ; .~ - Ct FOR INTE3~ATl0~AL ~ EYI. `~~7 to U . S. Department of Int erior U. S. Geological Survey -~. 01 BOF-0000-P-IC-3064- ~7_ 1984 lI . Scope o f Work 1. Conduct ~ series of inceruceione1 eeinere and workabope ( including field tripe) over ~ f:~_cek period (March 5-30, 1984) at the U.S. G.olo~ica1 Survey Pedere1 Training Cenear in Bower, Colorado on the sub jecte of gealogice1 and hydrological hazards for not lea. then 30 foreign perticipanes from earehqual" and/or flood disseter-pro" developing countries. 2. Select and invite seminar participants ~ identified by USAIDa, OF0A and U.S.G.S. tachnica1 eels trinity co host countries. Review *11 appropriate applications and arrange all travel and per died for t rawness . 3. Select ant in~ricc distinguished foreign guest lecturers from each of three regions previously visited by the U.S.G.S. to. 4. Finalize agenda for seminar/workshop program a~ coordinate preparation of final instruct tonal material. and arrangements for lecture exercises, elides and reprint/publicat~ons distribucion. S. Coordinate and implement foreign and domestic chapel logistics and per diem distribution for all Lecturers consultants, and pereicipants. 6. Develop a past~disaster response to plan Co ass ist couneerpart experts in hocc countries co determine the nature of disaster evenes and probability of further aceiviCy. Provide guidelines for in~counery use in protecting life and property against d:sascers caused by floods, earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes arc. 7. Assist host countries in collecting the technical information needed co develop comprehensive disaster preparedness programs ant assist in pos ~ -d i ~ as ter sc iene i f Arc re sponse ac e svi e ies . 8. Publish training program preseneations, ir:seruce tonal materials concept, technical results and ocher substantive materials in a finer volume (i.e. U.S.G.S. Professional Paper) for worldwide public d s ~ peanut son . I I: . Bac Aground "Proposal A" (attached) included by reference in :his amendmenc. IV. Report ~ 1. Quarterly Progress reports are required ( ~ ix copies ) . 2. Final Report ( see No . 8 above ) is required in ( draft ) four months following completion of the training program. Final U.S.G.S. (and A. I.D. approved) Professional Paper co be published before complecson of the project.

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go 21 ACERB SERVICE ~G LIT Mix ~ red CENT FOR INTO - 4TlO~AL OlYt FM - T to S~ 0' ~~X V. Re let ionshipe U. S. Department of Interior U. S. Geological Sunrey I. 0~166., - ^_~- _ - A" - a- _ 0~ - Ooo~P_rc 3064 1984 A,. The U.S Geological Survey will conduct the activity using U.S.G.S. pereanne1, and uni~craity specialists ~ appropriate. ~UD/OF1~ Al 1 coordinate wi ch the USt;S in conduce ing the program in Cooperat ion wits' t he LDCe and USAIDe . Cooperat ing Country Liaison Of fic is1 The U. S.C.S wi 11 coordinate in-country with couneerpare governmental agencies Ad institutions and all logistical arrangements imrolv,ed in the training course. C . Vl. Logistics AID Liaison Officials P au 1 F . Krumpe Program Officer, AID/OFDA, Pen. 1262A, N.S. Washington, O. C. 20S23 US<;S vi 1L sauce all internee tonal and domesc ic cranial arrangeacnts, including purchase of tickets, obtaining passports or ''rises as required, ant make all transportac ion arrangements for domest ic renta1 care for official travel as required. VII. Soec lal Peru ~ resents: . ';o international travel originating in :he C.S. should be undertaken without prior approval of AIDICFDA/',; and or CVJSC0/l;.~. Subcontracting authority is Ranted to O'SGS under i Is 0~ cont.ace~ng authority, and in accordance with A. I. ~ . '.~=ndbook 2 ~ . pages 1-21 and 1-21a, not co exceed SS5,000 as stipulated in the actac.ned budget. All training under this agreement shall be provided i: accordance Finn A. I.D. Handbook 10. ~~-

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Appendix M FOURTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM _ _ __ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ RES OUR OF THE FEDERAL INSTITUTE FOR GEOSCIENCES AND NATURAL RESOURCES CEO-RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT . Examples from the Applied Geosciences 91

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92 ~ o. ~~' 3 it 31 ~ 3, al ~ , I` al t5~ of. 7 use ~ UJ ~ w ~ ~ ~ . . . s 3 ~ ~ ~ : ~ ]: ~ ~ : S : ~ ~ 0 00 ~ _ _ O O , ~ ~ 7 ~ o ~ =~ ) r e hi 3 1 1 i 3 = 1 ~ ~ i ~ 3 ~ ~ ~ ~

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Appendix N INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR TRAINING AND GEOLOGICAL EXCHANGES (ICTGE) Centre International Pour la Formation et les Echanges Geologiques 103 Rue de Lile, 75007 PARIS, France At the closing of the 26th International Geological Congress held in Paris in July 1980, an idea was launched for the creation of a permanent center which, working together with the international organizations, would encourage and facilitate exchanges between institutions of all nationalities specializing in the Earth Sciences, and would provide assistance, in particular, for scientists and technicians with advanced training and study opportunities. The Earth Sciences contribute to the economic and social development of a nation via the exploitation and development of its mining resources. They also have a number of other important spheres of influence, in particular in the energy sector and that of territorial development. Geological studies are fundamental to the search for and the management of water resources. They are necessary for large-scale civil engineering projects and for environmental and impact studies, problems connected with urban expansion, etc. International cooperation implies that those countries that have an established tradition in the technologies corresponding to these activities have a duty to assist less industrialized nations, sharing with them the benefit of their experience. In order to do this, it is first necessary to find out the actual requirements of such countries, to study with them the consequences on a national or regional scale of new technological input, so that, in response to requests, efficient assistance may be provided for their development. Contacts established with the representative authorities responsible for international cooperation projects in the field o~ the Earth Sciences, have confirmed the concern of many countries--in particular those with developing industrialization--concerning scientific information, training opportunities and higher education Boor their executive staff. For practical considerations, the ICTGE--ar. internationally oriented organization under French jurisdiction--was created in August 1981 by the transformation of an already existing 'inundation. Administrative control of the Centre is assured by a Board of Directors of 24 members from various nations and belonging to a variety of organizations (including UNESCO). 93

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94 An Upper Scientific and Technical Council, again of international composition, will be created to assist the Board of Directors. This body will propose the general principles to govern the orientation of the Centre and give advice on the ICTGE work program. Its members will be drawn from representatives of the international organizations and from persons with experience of international cooperation in the Earth Sciences. The objectives of the ICTGE as regards the Earth Sciences have been outlined as follows: to promote the exchange of information between countries; to encourage all initiatives for scientific and technical training within the countries concerned, or outside them where no suitable facilities are locally available; to gather the requirements in geological information as expressed by these countries and to find with them the way of meeting these needs; to involve all types of organizations and associations concerned by the Earth Sciences in this work. The new Centre is not to form a substitute for the organizations already participating in international cooperation of this sort, but to facilitate their contacts and make the best possible use of their initiatives. TRAINING The ICTGE must first make an accurate survey of the requirements in cooperation-training as expressed by the various countries and in particular by the developing countries. This will be balanced by a survey of all the opportunities offered for higher education and specialized training in the industrialized countries. The training to be undertaken will be of two main types: group training programs inside the developing countries, usually intended for technicians, the coaching being provided by foreign teachers and engineers; research work or specialized studies by engineers and scientists carried out in the countries possessing the corresponding technology. MEETING PLACE AND COMMtJNICATION GENTER The Centre will serve as a focal point for meetings and communication between engineers and scientists Atom throughout the world. This part of its functions will present a threefold complementary aspect, in close association with its role as a documentation center (see below): welcome and information (scientific, technical and practical) at the head office;

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95 response to scientific and technical requests from various countries, often by channeling these requests towards the most suitable organizations; publication of an information and liaison bulletin DOCUMENTATION CENTER . In this role the ICTGE will provide geological and mining information, together with macroeconomic data, particularly concerned with the developing countries of the world. For these purposes, the Centre will possess a library containing synthesis studies, monographs (thematic or regional), and the programs for bilateral and multilateral cooperation. It will be equipped with all the documentary and data processing means allowing it access to the international data banks. It will therefore be able to establish an information network with all the main documentary centers.

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