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Appendix C EVOLUTION AND IMPORTANCE OF INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES IN THE GEOSCIENCES A Background Paper by John C. Crowell, William E. Benson, and John A. Reinemund GEOSCIENCE IS GLOBAL Our home is the earth. The welfare of all, including those living in the United States, requires that we understand this home, how it evolved, where its useful resources lie, and how we can nurture it for the benefit of people living today and tomorrow. As world population increases, so does competition for resources. It is imperative that we inventory these valuable substances that are contained within the earth's crust, both in our country and over the globe as a whole. Our commercial and industrial enterprise can thrive only if we understand the location and availability of raw materials, now and through the remind H"~"c The ennui c~1 and "v=1 action Of thence r=.cn~,rr-.~ mat ~_~11~O ~~_~ e ^~ C~,~IJ~ Cal ~ =~1 C4~ C ~ C~CL~_ ~ Van ~ __ _ ~_~~ ~ A&~ I_ be weighed in formulating foreign policy and in erecting a stance for U.S. industry in international commerce. For scientific, economic and policy reasons, therefore, the United States must improve its understanding of its resource bank. The earth is dynamic and active. _ Its crust is continually in slow motion, but from time to time these movements become violent, resulting ~ floods and landslides. Knowledge to help ameliorate such hazards must come from far-flung studies across the globe, across the full width of oceans and continents, wherever geological phenomena are active In earthquakes and tsunamis, or volcanic eruptions, or or geologic data are available Global research during the past few decades has brought new insight to the nature and history of our planet. ~ The outermost shells of the hard earth beneath our feet are broken into plates that move inexorably about. Mountains rise where plates collide. So the Himalayan Range stands high where the subcontinent of India has been pushed into and beneath the continent of Asia. Mid-ocean mountain ridges follow trends where plates move apart. And where plates slide sideways past each other, their margins are splintered and broken and are marked by irregular ranges, valleys, and basins. The San Andreas fault system of California is such a margin. Insight into the way the earth is structured today and the way its huge heat machine operates came about only as the result of worldwide studies. Of principal importance in providing data has been the Deep Sea Drilling Project, funded largely by the U.S. National Science Foundation. This project through drilling 50

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51 and associated geophysical soundings proved that the ocean floors are created and move systematically. The plate tectonics concept and all its fruitful associated elucidations that go far to explain the nature of the physical world around us would not have been solidified without this worldwide research. THE IMPORTANCE OF GEOSCIENCE ON A GLOBAL SCALE Scientific Problems As large as it is, the United States including Alaska does not contain active examples of all tectonic styles that are manufactured by our mobile earth. So geologists need to travel to Japan and Indonesia to observe arcs of islands surmounted by volcanoes standing offshore from major continents. Collisional tectonics are best displayed today in the Himalayas. Yet, these and other types of structures have developed and then have been partly obliterated on our continent in the geologic past. Their eroded roots, including deposits of useful rocks and minerals, show that these activities once prevailed. To understand how the deposits formed, it is best to examine places where the processes responsible are in operation today. Geologic processes such as those involved in tectonic movements or in the formation of rocks and minerals at depth are extremely slow and operate in many different arenas. Scientists largely reconstruct processes by reasoning from their products, and many of these processes have long ceased producing at these sites for eons. Some have operated at depths of tens of kilometers over time intervals several hundreds of millions of years long. Only because the sites of these activities have been uplifted and then deeply eroded are the sites now in view. But there is a multiplicity of scenarios resulting from a multiplicity of processes operating in different intensities and in different sequences of events. Therefore the chances are highly unlikely that a complete decipherable sequence is preserved and visible at any one spot, and geologists must travel to many places to study earth problems. Surface geologic processes that today are active from the tropics to the poles have all affected the continental United States in the geologic past. For example, in studying climates of the remote past, geologists draw inferences from soils and sediments that are the products of the processes operating elsewhere today. Deep lateritic soils are preserved within the United States. They were formed during times long past; and we can observe this type of weathering and groundwater alteration today only in the tropics, in South America, for example, and so come to a better understanding of their origin. Studies in Antarctica and Greenland reveal much concerning glacial processes that have operated similarly in the geologic past and left their mark in ancient sedimentary deposits. Although it seems remarkable, the Death Valley region of California--now one of the hottest places within the United States--has an indisputable rock record of glaciation, showing that an icy and frigid climate prevailed

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52 there about 600 million years ago. Geologists must examine climatic products no matter where they occur on the earth today in order to reconstruct the climates of the remote past. Through such studies, more will be learned of how the climate system works today and how it has worked in the past. In short, the scientific challenge to the geoscientist is to elucidate the history of the earth from the time of its beginning on down to the present, and even to hazard statements concerning its future. This challenge involves gathering data wherever the data are available. The record, however, of events during the approximately 4.5 billion years of the earth's history is at best piecemeal. Much of this record has been lost through erosion, metamorphism, and reconstitution of older rocks into younger. The record even harbors clues on the history of life through geologic time, the changes in geographies such as the shapes and positions of continents and seas, and changes in the rocks at depth. Geochemical and geophysical information is especially useful in this huge task. The record is so fragmented, however, that wherever useful shreds can be scrutinized, geologists, geophysicists, and geochemists must go to the places where the pieces remain. And many times these places lie across' the seas in remote regions or within the floors of distant oceans. Societal Activities Earthquakes and tsunamis are among the most devastating natural events. Fortunately these inflict their havoc infrequently within our homeland, but nearly every year a major earthquake takes place somewhere on our planet. To understand better the tectonic setting of these disastrous earthquakes, scientists need to go and study their consequences. Why do they occur where they do? What geological, geophysical, and geochemical events preceded them? Such information may help in forecasting them more satisfactorily in the future. On-site experience is desirable not only to advance the science of geology but also as an aid to engineering, social science, and economics as they are applied to coping with these events. We can learn about the stability of dams, tunnels, aqueducts, highways, bridges, canals, buildings, and homes during severe ground shaking or inundation by tsunamis. How severe are the social and economic disruptions? We should be able to learn from disasters abroad so as to prepare better for our own. And in the process we may provide scientific and engineering knowledge to help our neighbors in their recovery and rebuilding. Other kinds of natural disasters also lend themselves to analysis. Among these are volcanic eruptions, floods, landslides, sink-hole collapses, severe wave batterings, and ground subsidence due to fluid withdrawal. Observations made wherever and whenever such events occur can lead us to better understanding and to better planning. Defense preparedness alone demands that we evaluate the results of all these natural events. Severe earthquakes at home, for example, could completely disrupt our capability to defend not only the affected

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53 areas but the rest of the country as well. Adequate preparedness plans must have sound geological information. The Scientists Themselves Science is a human activity. Geologists, geophysicists, and geochemists reap strong intellectual stimulation through discussions with their colleagues. They thrive on communication, and their productivity increases as the result of exchanges during scientific meetings. They need funding to support international travel so they can attend such meetings. In particular, field excursions to examine regions and mines and investigations in the company of local experts and foreign colleagues are especially rewarding. Work in progress and nascent concepts arrive at receptive ears long before they arrive at receptive eyes through the printed page. Such exchanges reveal very quickly whether U.S. scientists are leading or lagging. We have a feeling that they are beginning to lag. Participation in international meetings spreads goodwill and can become an effective force in easing international strains or in understanding why they exist. At such meetings an informal scene is set to drive home the concept that science is done for the benefit of all mankind and that understanding the earth and its resources and its fragility may help harrassed societies in struggling with their economic and social problems. Communication and friendship among scientists begins to break barriers between diverse cultures, and usually an attitude of mutual helpfulness grows automatically. This helpfulness can include participating in teaching at many educational levels, helping to solve engineering geological problems, or in resource development. Resources Society depends on mineral and energy resources won from the crust. No longer can our nation depend on such resources coming from the rocks of our homeland alone, but we are dependent on oil, manganese, chromium, tin, aluminum, and many other materials from overseas. These deposits require study by our geoscientists from many viewpoints. First, we need to understand their extent and value and for how long they can provide their materials to support our economy. Second, study of overseas deposits will reveal much concerning the geological processes responsible for their formation. Such information may tell us what to look for elsewhere in order to find similar deposits, including those so far undiscovered within our homeland. Third, investigations of unusual crustal areas where special geochemical activities have brought about the accumulation of mineral and energy deposits will aid in understanding how these processes operate. The processes are active at many depths and are influenced by many factors such as the composition of rocks in the vicinity and of the variety of fluids percolating slowly through rock pores and

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54 fissures. By including the whole world as a laboratory, geologists have a chance to examine many types of crustal environments and types that have not been exposed in the rocks of the United States. As with all geologic processes, ore-forming processes have not been distributed evenly over the earth, and scientists must travel widely to study them. Foreign Policy Geoscientific factors have an impact on foreign policy. They do this whether the impacts are recognized or not, and it behooves the United States to evaluate them before they have critical consequences. Planning should consider worldwide resource availability and our competitive stance. Geoscientific considerations are important in regard to the Antarctic Treaty, the Law of the Sea, and the Nuclear Test Ban treaties. In addition, scientific research must precede international and national commitments pertaining to acid rain, the disposal of hazardous wastes, and the allocation of strategic minerals. The world's people recognize that energy resources--oil, gas, coal, and uranium--are unequally distributed. At home too few realize that the United States is now a "have-not" nation and that we import a substantial amount of our oil. The future welfare of the United States leans heavily on knowing where resources are, the size of the deposits, and what they can yield both now and through the improvement of technologies. But sound policy positions depend on sound science and satisfactory inventories. One of the best ways to increase our knowledge of the world inventory of resources is to stimulate scientific exchange programs of many sorts and to participate in international scientific programs. HISTORICAL SUMMARY OF U.S. GEOSCIENCE ACTIVITIES ABROAD Government Programs U.S. geologists first had a major role in U.S. government activities abroad during World War II. During the war years geologists carried out investigations of strategic minerals in many Latin American countries under a program sponsored by the Interdepartmental Committee on Scientific and Cultural Cooperation, coordinated by the Department of State and the Foreign Economic Administration. U.S. geologists participated in terrain analyses, engineering studies, and hydrologic investigations to support military operations in both Europe and the Pacific. Geologists were also used extensively in the post-war occupation forces in Japan, South Korea, and the western Pacific Islands. In the 1950s and 1960s, geological activities were a major component of the U.S. foreign assistance program. During these decades, U.S. geologists helped to strengthen geoscience agencies and programs in more than 70 countries. Concurrently, U.S.-funded geoscience activities became a significant component of a number of

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55 organizations, including the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Bureau of Mines, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. In some countries geological assistance and research programs during these years contributed directly toward the implementation of foreign policy; for example, geological assistance to Indonesia, which was interrupted during the regime, was one of the first programs reactivated when a new government was installed. Also, USGS assistance in geological mapping and resources studies in Saudi Arabia, which was initiated in the 1950s, was, and continues to be, a significant element in U.S. relations with the Saudi Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources. In the 1970s, the role of geology in the U.S. foreign assistance program declined substantially, owing to an AID policy of focusing on agriculture and other sectors. This policy has placed the United States far behind other aid-giving countries in the size and scope of foreign geological activities, has made it difficult for developing countries to have access to U.S. geological expertise and technology, and has resulted in a loss of U.S. contacts and influence among the geological and resources community in most developing countries. This, in turn, has decreased the opportunities for U.S. contractors and suppliers under the AID program. On the plus side, geological cooperation with other countries as an instrument of foreign policy initiatives become more widespread during this decade. Many intergovernmental science and technology agreements were negotiated to strengthen political relationships with other countries, including agreements with Brazil, China, Mexico, and Venezuela. These were supplemented by memoranda of understanding between U.S. agencies and their counterparts. The USGS, for example, currently has nearly 50 agreements with other countries, as shown in Appendix J. Unfortunately, no funding was specifically allocated for most of these agreements: because of this, the level of cooperative activity has been minimal and continuity has been uncertain. A happy exception to this is the cooperative science and technology agreement with Spain, which does provide funds under an agreement covering the use of military bases in that country. Cooperative agreements with Egypt, India, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, and Yugoslavia have in the past utilized U.S.-owned foreign currencies to meet operating costs in the cooperating countries, but these funds are now exhausted or in short supply. Through these four decades of changing policies toward geological assistance and cooperation, the United States has maintained a modest resource attache (regional resources officer) program in selected U.S. embassies. This program was an outgrowth of the strategic mineral studies abroad during World War II. Initially it consisted of a few professionals assigned to U.S. embassies from the U.S. Bureau of Mines. In 1975, it was reorganized and enlarged, and foreign service officers were assigned as resources officers. Despite fluctuating support and frequent changes of staff, the program has generally been an effective mechanism for obtaining information about resources and programs in those countries that have resources officers, although there are limitations due to the fact that these officers are not

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56 geoscience professionals. Currently there are regional resources officers in 10 U.S. embassies and designated resources reporters in 9 other U.S. embassies. Perhaps the most significant aspect of this program is that it reflects a recognition, within the Department of State, of the importance of earth resources--along with geological and resources programs--in U.S. political relationships to other countries. However, the program is not, and never has been, adequate in scope and expertise to meet the U.S. need for resources information in support of mineral policy and national security considerations. Although U.S. policies of the 1970s toward use of geological programs have been continued with little change, two significant trends related to international geology have emerged. The first is positive; it involves increased support under the foreign assistance program for assistance in geologic and hydrologic hazard assessment, mitigation, and training. A number of regional and bilateral projects in earthquake monitoring and risk analysis have been developed, and a new program of geologic and hydrologic hazard training is now being developed jointly by the USGS and AID, although no funds are currently allocated to it. In addition, the United States has participated during the 1970s and 1980s in the International Hydrological Program, an ongoing multinational attack on water development problems, involving both basic science and applied research, and has entered into a number of bilateral technical assistance programs in hydrology. The second trend is negative and concerns the decline of U.S. leadership in international applications of remote sensing. This results from lack of sufficient official U.S. interest and support for remote sensing applications research, together with the uncertain future of U.S.-owned earth resources satellites and determined efforts by other countries to move into areas of research and training in remote sensing technology that were previously dominated by the United States. The U.S. role in remote sensing will be further weakened if the earth resources satellites are exclusively the property of private industry and access to the data becomes unduly expensive or restricted. Petroleum Activities During this same period (i.e., 1940-1975) the international energy sector changed substantially in its overall composition and in its relationships to the host countries in which it operates. Through the 1940s, foreign oil exploration and production were conducted by a relatively few major international companies under relatively simple concession terms that covered both exploration and production and that allowed title to the oil to reside with the operating company. The host countries received their share in the form of royalties and taxes. During the 1950s and 1960s, a number of independent oil companies appeared on the international oil scene, resulting in brisk competition for concession areas and a greater variation in the concession terms negotiated. During the same period, a number of national oil companies were organized to represent the energy interests of various countries,

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57 and with different yardsticks on what concession terms were acceptable. As a result, general ground rules changed during the 1960s and 1970s to present-day terms in which most host governments stipulate a partnership or production sharing arrangement, with title to the oil produced residing with the host government. Modern exploration agreements, particularly in developing countries, commonly require technical training of personnel of the host country in all facets of the petroleum industry, and the trend is toward a larger and larger participation of nationals in the international oil scene. Minerals Industry Programs U.S. investment in foreign exploration and mine development has been an important segment of our nation's industrial growth since the days of the original thirteen colonies. Dependence on foreign sources of minerals because of economic attractiveness, domestic shortages, or other more complex factors has resulted in continual involvement of U.S. private groups with a variety of countries, commodities, and overseas organizations over the past 200 years. Although some foreign programs have been precipitated by worldwide or local reactionary efforts, such as the flocking to western Australia in the 1970s nickel boom and the current keen competition for Canadian gold deposits, most exploration efforts have been designed on an individual basis, applying the unique, differential concepts that exploration groups perceive that they possess. In the past 40 years, investment in foreign exploration and deposit development by domestic minerals organizations has varied with worldwide economical and political changes. Program emphasis has reacted to demand for particular minerals at the time and on projected requirements for specific time frames. This approach was evidenced by the exploration rush into uranium-rich provinces of Canada, Australia, and the United States in the 1950s through 1970s and the major emphasis on large-tonnage, enriched porphyry copper deposits in many regions of the world. Most of these exploration and mining efforts were based on geoscience generated to a large extent by the interested parties, as reliable available reports and maps were often inadequate. During the past two decades, there has been an increased involvement of private financial institutions in mineral deposit development throughout the world. Escalating capital costs, cyclical metal prices, and expanded control or project development by host governments have complicated the historical position of private U.S. mining companies as the discoverers, developers, and financiers of most major ore bodies. This shift from the mining sector to financial groups has resulted in the establishment of in-house capabilities by banks to evaluate critical technical factors in proposed minerals operations and engineering projects. Funding requirements often involve multimillion dollar transfers, and consequently, financial institutions must be comfortable that justification exists for such long-term commitments.

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58 Geological data required to appraise an investment opportunity will vary with the project and include basic information regarding geological settings and known mineral occurrences. A thorough review of existing data and discussions with knowledgeable individuals is followed by on-site visits by technical representatives of the bank, such as geologists, engineers, and/or mineral economists. Consultants with particular expertise often supplement the bank's in-house capabilities. Many of the financing proposals involve developing Third World countries, and local geologic/mining consultants have proven to be essential contributors to project evaluations. A growing number of U.S. financial institutions have established internal personnel capable of evaluating mineral investment projects. "Money center banks" that currently have relatively large staffs specifically committed to mineral and energy appraisals include Bank of America, Bankers Trust, Chase Manhattan, Chemical, Citibank, Continental Illinois, First Chicago, Manufacturers Hanover, and Morgan (see Appendix F). Besides these major banks, some smaller financial institutions maintain resource-oriented staffs. The actual number of professional personnel involved in minerals/energy groups are adjusted to accommodate an individual bank's needs over a particular period of time. Changing emphasis related to specific mineral and energy commodities results in periodic shifts in staff sizes and direction, although the current trend is toward larger and more technically competent minerals/energy departments. This growing emphasis on internal review of mineral investment proposals is not restricted to domestic financial institutions. International lending agencies such as the World Bank, Inter-American Development Banks, and Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) also employ experienced geoscientists and individuals with a mineral background on per-manent and part-time bases to provide evaluation and recommendations regarding intermittent mineral development projects.