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Appendix E STATEMENT ON SCIENCE IN THE INTERNATIONAL SETTING AS ADOPTED BY THE NATIONAL SCIENCE BOARD AT ITS 238TH MEETING ON SEPTEMBER 16-17. 1982 The United States is at a critical point in its international scientific relationships: American scientists no longer lead in every field of science and U.S. industry is significantly challenged in many areas of technology. The global nature of many scientific problems, the resolution of which may significantly influence the future well-being of U.S. society, requires increased international cooperation and a coherent approach for successful study. The increased scale and complexity of many modern scientific projects requires facilities and operations whose costs strongly suggest the utility of international coordination, sharing and, in some cases, cooperative funding. Foreign policy considerations play an increasingly important role in the conduct of international scientific activities. Science and technology are becoming increasingly interdependent, and the national security implications of technology transfer have led to increased discussion of the need for additional controls on the international scientific communication process itself. In view of the importance of these issues and their potential impact on the overall health of U.S. science, the National Science Board has addressed the broad topic of "Science in the International Setting." This statement expresses the Board's present policy and consolidates and extends a number of past Board actions on this subject. IMPORTANCE OF INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COOPERATION Scientific interaction at the international level is an essential element in the continued vitality of science. Historically, the Nation has profited greatly from its positive stance of encouraging outstanding scientists from throughout the world to be aware of and participate in our scientific activities and encouraging U.S. 61

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62 scientists to travel and interact closely with scientific projects in other nations. There are certain fields in which international cooperation and access are essential to the effective conduct of research because the scientific questions being addressed are inherently global in nature. Examples include research related to climatology, oceanography, space applications, health, population and resource studies, acid rain, carbon dioxide buildup and heating of the atmosphere. Many of these issues are of serious concern to the future well-being of our citizens, as well as to those of other nations. Many disciplines, such as plant sciences, anthropology, and the geophysical sciences, require access to scientific sites in foreign areas. The cost, scale, and complexity of scientific facilities in many disciplines, such as high energy physics and astronomy, provide strong incentives for nations to share in the planning, financing, and use of such facilities. The value of international scientific cooperation is by no means limited to the use of large facilities. Individual scientists in specialized fields often find international collaborative efforts to be of signal importance in facilitating the advancement of their fields. SCIENTIFIC COOPERATION WITH VARIOUS NATIONS The objective of maintaining the vigor of the U.S. research effort requires a broad, world-wide program of cooperation with outstanding scientists in many nations. Cooperation with the industrialized democracies, such as OECD members and our NATO allies, is clearly of great value to the economic well-being and industrial capability of our own Nation as well as theirs. These nations enjoy comparable levels of technical sophistication and the potential for sharing advanced, costly facilities. Since opportunities for interaction with these countries are readily available, the greatest latitude should be given to individual cooperation and exchanges independent of formal bilateral programs. However, the NSF should continue to participate in selected intergovernmental agreements that serve identifiable useful functions. Developing countries, many of which have a corps of highly qualified scientists, also offer significant opportunities for scientific cooperation, including unique possibilities for access to scientifically important territories and environments. Moreover, international scientific cooperation may offer economic, diplomatic and other policy benefits going beyond the immediate needs and interests of science per se. With many of these countries, bilateral agreements, including the provision for support and maintenance of continuity, are required to ensure the success of collaborative scientific activities. Since direct contact between the involved scientists is essential to ensure the effectiveness of the programs, the U.S. should continue to encourage an emphasis in its bilateral agreements on such scientist- to- scientist cooperation. There is also evidence of benefit for U.S. science from contacts

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63 with scientists from communist countries. Opportunities for individual scientific cooperation, even in the presence of strained political relationships, keep open channels for communication and can lay foundations for enhanced cooperation should conditions become more propitious in the future. Exchanges with communist countries should be conducted so that commensurate benefits flow to both sides. The levels of scientific activity with these three classes of nations will vary in time as scientific opportunities change and in reflection of the evolution of our foreign relations. At any given time, these levels will reflect a balance between needs and opportunities for American science and the goals and requirements of foreign policy and national security. The Board concludes that because the international dimension is intrinsic to the nature of scientific research and because of the Foundation's role in the support of the Nation's foreign policy, the Director of the Foundation must play a significant role, in collaboration with the Department of State and the Executive Office of the President, in the development and implementation of the international science policy of the United States. The Board strongly supports the Director in that very important dimension of his responsibilities. So that the Board can take these policy considerations fully into account in its planning, the Board must keep abreast of international initiatives and U.S. foreign policy objectives that should be considered in formulating the Foundation's priorities and budget. MODALITIES FOR FACILITATING INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COOPERATION Agencies such as the NSF, as well as universities and nongovernmental professional scientific organizations, will each have unique and important contributions to make toward the success of cooperative international scientific activities. The Foundation, by virtue of its fundamental and broad-based scientific program, should take the initiative, in cooperation with the Department of State and other agencies as appropriate, to bring together potential international partners to accomplish the necessary planning and implementation for international sharing or collaboration in fundamental science and engineering research. Under the auspices of the International Council of Scientific Unions, a number of multilateral scientific programs have been successfully carried out, often with the cooperation and assistance of intergovernmental organizations and member governments. The International Geophysical Year program (the 25th anniversary of which is being commemorated now) has offered a useful paradigm for subsequent efforts in the atmospheric, geophysical and ocean regimes. The foundation should use such multilateral channels when attractive opportunities arise. The role of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS, NAE, TOM) as a congressionally chartered, yet private organization has enabled it to relate to many nongovernmental institutions throughout the United

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64 States in cooperating with other countries. This is a source of strength of which the Foundation should take full advantage. The National Academy has an especially significant role to play in facilitating international scientific cooperation, both by virtue of serving as the U.S. representative in connection with various nongovernmental international scientific organizations, and through bonds of cooperation with similar academies in other countries. INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION Maintenance of a strong technological position is central to our national security and to our economic and commercial vitality. Technology leadership depends on a creative and vigorous science and engineering base which, in turn, benefits greatly from an effective international exchange of scientific and engineering information. Opportunities for exchange of novel ideas and rapid assimilation of new research results provided by contacts and conferences have long been important to the progress of science. These exchanges have served the Nation well in terms of contributing to rapid advances in basic research, innovation, application of research results, and development of state-of-the-art technology. Foreign students, teachers, and researchers working on American campuses are also an important resource, both for our universities and ultimately for our industry's success in foreign markets. As a result of the advanced state of development of the U.S. scientific enterprise, the U.S. has been particularly efficient in absorbing, understanding, and extending new ideas from all sources, foreign and domestic; and this in itself is becoming an increasingly vital component of the success of U.S. science and its contributions to technology and industrial strength. Advances in scientific knowledge are usually incremental and interdependent. They are facilitated by knowledge of other scientists' successes and failures, and by the criticism of one's peers--that is, by open discussion. Openness on the campuses of American colleges and universities is particularly central; for it is there that new research directions are frequently conceived, and there that the next generation of scientists is trained. Restrictions which diminish that openness are likely to have serious costs to science and, ultimately, to national security. Such costs should be carefully considered in all dimensions before implementing any actions that would compromise the traditional open environment that has served us so well in the past. In those special instances where universities choose to undertake proprietary or classified work, they may have to accept constraints on communication. CONCLUDING STATEMENT The nature of science requires that its international dimension be considered an organic aspect of the scientific enterprise. This

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65 dimension must be actively provided for in all Foundation programs, from education and fellowships to the various disciplinary efforts in the natural sciences, social sciences, and engineering. Planning for new facilities and the setting of priorities for major scientific investigations and programs should be carried out with the full recognition of the priorities of other countries and in an environment which encourages complementarily or planned supplementation, cost sharing, and coherence of the various efforts of cooperating countries. National Science Foundation organization and management procedures should reflect these principles. The Board will continue its analysis of the subject of "Science in the International Setting" in connection with the preparation of the Sixteenth Board Report of this same title.