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Appendix K COOPERATIVE SCIENCE WITH HUNGARY United States Department of the Interior Geological Survey Reston, VA 22092 In Reply Refer To: Mail Stop 915 MEMORANDUM The record From: Paul Teleki Subject: Cooperative science with Hungary May 3, 1985 Detached as possible, I need to make a few points _ 5-year old USGS-Central Office of Geology of Hungary program. 2. 3. concerning the . _O In the 10 years that I have been with the Survey, it only cooperative science program that r~tllrn"~ t~ 1.~ is the , ~~ ~~ as much as we gave. Lately the benefits have shifted even more toward the Survey as specific field experiments the Survey could not afford were being set up. It is a program that interested the World Bank enough to approve USGS consultancy in petroleum exploration in Hungary, not an easy decision with private consultants milling around by the 100's. But consultanev Won ~ ~ rat =~= AT science. It is one of a very small number of programs where the State Department and the U.S. Ambassador recognized that the Survey contributed substantially toward U.S. foreign policy objectives. The annual out-of-pocket cost ($25-30K) is a piddling sum compared to the benefits received, and that this amount is equivalent to the purchase price of 2 NBI's surprises even me. ~ I,_, ~ A., ~ ~ ~~ ~ CLOG =~H ~ ~ ~ ~ VG 82

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83 5. The 6. The monetary benefits: a. Five dedicated boreholes drilled to 1000-1500 m depth with oriented samples taken for magnetostratigraphic determinations, if done by the USGS: $10M (estimated). b. Computer software in graphics and in electromagnetics, if developed by the GS: $500K (estimated). c. Vertical seismic profiling field experiments and data, if done by the USGS: $750K (est.~. d. Borehole data (cores, samples, logs) for sedimentological and facies analysis, if drilled and logged by the GS: $800K (est.~. e. Data made available for control and development of interpretation techniques in electrical geophysical methods, if developed by the GS: at least $1M. f. Receipt of 800 km of high quality COP land seismic-reflection profiles, a $2M acquisition cost in the U.S. scientific benefits: a. Continental magnetostratigraphic data to update the polarity time scale known from marine DSDP and continental shelf sediments, data, and to develop a global magnetic reversal scale. b. Ability to test time-domain EM and IP systems and models for ore exploration, and a series of "firsts" in establishing the theoretical basis and demonstrating application to bauxite deposits, karst and water-bearing sediments. c. Seismic reflection profiles and borehole data provided to understand a unique (young, pull-apart), geological basin, one of the few in the world where seismic stratigraphic studies can reveal, in great detail, the mechanics of extensional faulting, map a complete progression of basin infilling, and understand petroleum reservoir properties in lacustrine continental settings. This can only help as an analog for U.S. basin studies. d. Oil samples from several wells analyzed jointly provided some of the first clues to migration and maturation of petroleum in a young basin with high geothermal gradients. e. An opportunity to study heavy mineral suites not existing in the U.S. f. Whereas the GS scientists have been working on vertical seismic profiling for about 10 years and extended the theory for it, and published extensively on this topic (a book by Balch and Lee), the only non-proprietary data available to test the VSP theory further was afforded to them by field experiments set up in Hungary. In addition, the GS never had any success with explosives as

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84 g. h. 1. k. a seismic (sound) source, which the Hungarians solved. A place where an integrated basin analysis could be carried out-on account of a very high data density - nothing in the U.S. compares to this density in any basin. A willingness of Hungarian earth science institutes to run field programs with their staff and equipment) . ~ . . . . . . ~ spec~car~on or Input by Survey scientists (EM, I: ?, VSP, seismic reflection and refraction Profiles. drilling and coring). Where coal classification and quality studies, intercomparing U.S. and European classification schemes, can be compared and contrasted, replacing earlier studies with Poland. Where theoretical geophysics is on a world class level and has supplemented practical problems in mineral resources the GS had to solve domestically and on a reimbursable basis (Saud' Arabia) Technical achievements of each side complement one another and generate high benefits for both. ram ~ ~ 7 . Granted, money is in short supply. But the problems with the Hungarian co-op are symptomatic of deeper, more fundamental problems the USGS has with international activities. Whatever the raison d'etre, a vacuum is being left behind by the Survey in all parts of the world, that is quickly filled by the French, Canadians, Germans, Norwegians, British, Japanese, Soviets, and others. We are gradually working ourselves into a state of isolation. This will play into the hands of those governments who are encouraged by other powers to minimize foreign scientific visitors snooping around (paraphrasing Linn Hoover). But more importantly, we cannot keep a leading edge (if still any) in science and technology if we only talk to ourselves. I don't see how we can walk away from an integrated basin analysis program carefully structured over the years with the storehouse data raw samples and depositories backing it up, that we couldn't afford to collect in 10 or 20 years. T`7~ th ~ mt='r`at~ ^~a I Tori taxi Ice \` ~ 0~T~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _; ~ a_

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85 PUBLICATIONS, USGS-HUNGARIAN COOP PROGRAM Berczi, I. and R.L. Phillips, 1982, Preliminary sedimentological investigations of a characteristic Neo gene depression area in the Great Hungarian Plains-Southwest Hungary; Int. Assoc. of Sedim., abs. with program, p. 181. Pelton, W.H., W.R. Sill, and B.D. Smith, 1983, Interpretation of complex resistivity and dielectric data, Part I; Geophysical Trans., v. 29, no. 4, pp. 297-330, Pt. II, v. 30, no. 1, pp. 11-46. Berczi, I. and R.L. Phillips, in press, Preliminary sedimentological investigations in the Great Hungarian Plain, AAPG Memoir, p. 11, 12 figs. Gill. D. 1983. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of the Pannonian Basin, USGS Open-File Rept. 16p. (corollary study the co-op program). Fisch, I., I. Koncz, R.E. Miller, in press, Estimation of kerogene type by time-temperature pyrolysis method; Proc. USGS-COG Conference, Oct. 1984 & USGS Open-File Rept. 88-291. Vero, L., B.D. Smith, W.L. Anderson, and J. Csorgei, in press, Comparison of interpretation methods for time-domain spectral induced polarization data; Proc. USGS-COG Conf., Oct. 1984, USGS Open-File Rept. 85-291. Kesmarky, I., in press, High resolution interval velocities; Proc. USGS-COG Conf; Oct. 1984 & USGS Open-File Report 85-291. (with contributions by J. Grow) Kakas, K., F. Frischknecht, J. Ujszaszi, W.L. Anderson and E. Prachser, in press, Transient electromagnetic soundings-development of interpretation methods and application to bauxite exploration, Proc. USGS-COG Conf. Oct. 1984, USGS Open-File Rept. 85-291. Phillips R.L., and I. Berczi, in press, Processes and depositional environments within Neogene deltaic-lacustrine sediments, Pannonian Basin, southeast Hungary, Pt. 1, Proc. USGS-COG Conf., Oct. 1984, USGS Open-File Rept. 85-291. Phillips R.L., and I. Berczi, submitted, Processes and depositional environments of Neogene deltaic/lacustrine sediments. Pannonian Basin, southeast Hungary; Part II; Core investigation summary, USGS Open-File Rept. 68p. Somos, L.G., D. Zubovic, and F.O. Simon, in press, Geochemical analysis of 12 Hungarian coal samples; Proc. USGS-COG Conf., Oct. 1984, USGS Open-File Rept. 85-291. Elston D.P., A. Jambor, M. Lantos, A. Ronai, and G. Hamor, in press, Magnetostratigraphic studies of Neogene deposits, Pannonian Basin; Proc. USGS-COG Conf. Oct. 1984, USGS Open-File Rept. 85-291. Clifton H.E., M. Bohn-Havas, and P. Mueller, in press, Contrasting types of nearshore sands and gravels from semi-protected Miocene coasts, northern Hungary; Proc. USGS-COG Conf., Oct. 1984, USGS Open-File Rept. 85-291. Clifton H.E., M. Bohn-Havas and P. Mueller, in press, Aggradational calcareous nearshore gravel in a Miocene transgressive setting, northern Hungary; SEPM Annual Midyear mtg., abs. Vol. 2. Clifton. H.E., K. Brezsnyanszky, and J. Haas, in press, Contrasts in

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86 coarse-grained sediment gravity flows between the Cretaceous of northern Hungary and the Paleocene of central California. SEEM Annual Midyear mtg., abs. Vol. 2. Clifton H.E. K. Brezsnyanszky and J. Haas, in press Lithologic . . . . characteristics and paleogeographic significance of resedimented conglomerate of Late Cretaceous age in northern Hungary; Proc. USGS-COG Conf., Oct. 1984, USGS Open-File Rept. 85-291. Marton, E. and D. Elston, in press, Structural rotations from paleomagnetic directions of some Permo-Triassic red beds, Hungary; Proc. USGS-COG Conf., Oct. 1984, USGS Open-File Rept. 85-291. Hornung, P., R. Bowen K. Watson and J. Daniels, in press, Data base management and computer graphics; Proc. USGS-COG Conf., Oct. 1984, USGS Open-File Rept. 85-291. Grosz. A.E., F. Sikhegyi, and P.U. Fugedi, in press, Economic heavy minerals of the Danube River flood plain sediments and fluvio-lacustrine deposits of northwestern and central Hungary; Proc. USGS-COG Conf., Oct. 1984, USGS Open-File Rept. 85-291. Grosz A.E., A. Ronai, and R. Lopez 7 in press, Contribution to the determination of the Plio-Pleistocene boundary in sediments of the Basin; Proc. USGS-COG Conf., Oct. 1984, USGS 85-291. Rumpler, and R.L. Phillips, in press, Seismic the Pannonian Basin in Hungary; Proc. USGS-COG Conf., also AAPG Memoir (in press). Bardossy. 1985. Electrical Hungary; abs., 47th Ann. Mtg., European Assoc. Explor. Geophys., Budapest, Hungary. Draskovits, P., J. Hobot, L. Vero, and B.D. Smith, in press, Application of the induced polarization method for exploration of Quaternary sandy-shaley water-bearing formations; SEG Monograph on Induced Polarization Methods. Csaszar, G., H.E. Clifton and R. Hunter, in press, Details of a Pleistocene coastal succession, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California, Proc. USGS-COG Conf., Oct. 1984, USGS Open-File Rept. 85-291. Hunter R.E. H.E. Clifton N.T. Hall, G. Csaszar, B.M. Richmond and J.L. Chin. 1984. Pliocene and Pleistocene coastal and shelf deposits of the Merced Formation and associated beds, northwestern San Francisco Peninsula, California, in SEPM Field Trip Guidebook No. 3, 1984 midyear mtg., San Jose, CA, pp. 1-29. Great Hungarian Open-File Rept. 85-291. Mattick R.E., J. stratigraphy of ~ Oct. 1984, USGS Open-File Rept. 85-291, Smith B.D., L. Vero, J. Ujszaszi, and G. properties of karst bauxite deposits of