effectiveness in the course of long-duration missions remains to be planned and undertaken.
There is a need for more information about support delivery systems at the interface between ground-based and space-dwelling groups.
In the absence of a valid and reliable analysis of the existing database, it is not possible to determine whether the current procedures will be adequate for the screening and selection of candidates for long-duration missions.
Although the data from natural analog environments, including simulation studies, may be helpful, there remains a need to accumulate knowledge based on observations from systematic research in both natural and simulated extreme terrestrial environments and venues like the International Space Station.
NASA should give priority to increasing the knowledge base of the effects of living conditions and behavioral interactions on the health and performance of individuals and groups involved in long-duration missions beyond Earth orbit. Attention should focus on
understanding group interactions in extreme, confined, and isolated microenvironments;
understanding the roles of sex, ethnicity, culture, and other human factors on performance;
understanding potentially disruptive behaviors;
developing means of behavior monitoring and interventions;
developing evidence-based criteria for reliable means of crew selection and training and for the management of harmonious and productive crew interactions; and
training of both space-dwelling and ground-based support groups specifically selected for involvement in operations beyond Earth orbit.
Because of the high degree of risk of long-duration space missions and the relatively few data available, the need for the collection and analysis of all relevant data is a message that appears throughout this report. Currently, NASA distinguishes between astronaut health-related data, which are medical data and which are considered private, and supplemental data (mission-based data and responses to space travel) and integrated test regimen data