tent, with regard to the consequences of prolonged isolation and confinement (Gunderson, 1974a,b; Wood et al., 1999). Although the relevance of studies conducted in analog environments to long-duration space missions may vary (Stuster, 1986), they do appear useful for examination of intrapersonal and interpersonal issues. Such untoward effects as lassitude, apathy, and hygienic neglect, for example, have been reported in studies of unstructured time of variable duration with polar crews in analog environments (Taylor, 1987).

Among the more systematic approaches to analysis of the data from studies conducted in analog environments is a reported content analysis of diaries from polar expedition leaders that ranked the salience of behavioral issues (Stuster, 1996). Of the 22 categories ranked, “group interaction” was found to be the most salient, followed by “outside communication,” “workload,” and “recreation/leisure.” More structured studies with recruits from the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions have focused on the effects of group composition on the adaptation of individuals to a remote hazardous environment (Wood et al., 1999). The roles of group membership, the degree of isolation, and selected individual characteristics were examined in relation to self-evaluation measures. The reported results indicate that the predominant dimensions by which the participants determined how well they were functioning within the group included work, social life, and internalized emotional state, all of which appear to play an important role in how aspects of life in isolation and confinement are evaluated.

Requirements for Additional Knowledge

There is an overarching need to enhance the evidence base on the organization of general living conditions and performance requirements for small groups of humans in isolated and confined microsocieties. The objectives of this knowledge-seeking endeavor would be to specify the conditions under which effective work performance of the group can be generated and maintained within the context of productive and harmonious living arrangements that satisfy both individual and group needs for life support (clean air and water, an adequate food supply, waste management and recycling, lighting, adequate clean clothing, and communications) and general living conditions (medical care, sleep and rest, privacy, exercise, social interaction and sex, leisure and recreation, housekeeping and maintenance, education, remote contacts, and useful work).

Significant amounts of ground-based as well as specialized space mis-

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