cognitive dysfunctions of relevance to performance integrity (Cacioppo and Tassinary, 1990). Among the more obvious candidates for such psychophysiological monitoring would be heart rate variability, electrocardiogram wave-form, pulse volume, facial muscle action, blink rate and magnitude, ear canal and skin surface temperatures, as well as multiple-electrode electroencephalogram measures.

Even though monitoring technologies have focused on individual performance and behavioral health, there is also a need for methods and procedures that can be used to evaluate group interaction patterns under spaceflight conditions. Standardized systems for the monitoring and evaluation of the interactions between the members of small groups are available and could be adapted for use with space-dwelling groups through the use of audio-video downlink capabilities. One such psychometrically robust instrument, Systematic Multiple Level Observation of Groups (SYMLOG) (Box 5–3), adapts easily to individuals of different sexes and cultures and has been demonstrated to be valid and reliable in both military and expeditionary operations (Bachman, 1988; Bales, 1999).

Countermeasure Development and Implementation

Substantial portions of the NASA research and development investment in life sciences have been and continue to be devoted to the development of countermeasures. In large part, the activities of the recently established Na-

BOX 5–3 Systematic Multiple Level Observation of Groups

Systematic Multiple Level Observation of Groups (SYMLOG) (Bales, 1999) is a method of group assessment. SYMLOG rates each group member on three continue: dominance versus submissiveness, friendliness versus unfriendliness, and being accepting of task orientation imposed by authority versus being nonaccepting. It also has scales for rating of the values as well as specific group behaviors. SYMLOG is psychometrically robust, has demonstrated validity, and is easily adapted to individuals of different sexes and cultures. It has been translated into 19 languages.

This method has been shown to be effective in distinguishing average from superior naval crews and officers on active duty in the Atlantic and Pacific fleets. In April and May 2000, SYMLOG was used by a Dutch army-sponsored climb of Pumo-Ri, a 7,200-meter mountain west of Mt. Everest. On the way to the top, the behavior of a group of nine climbers was rated daily by SYMLOG for evaluation of fitness and other performance factors.



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