in both natural and simulated extreme terrestrial environments and venues like the International Space Station.


NASA should give priority to increasing the knowledge base of the effects of living conditions and behavioral interactions on the health and performance of individuals and groups involved in long-duration missions beyond Earth orbit. Attention should focus on

  • understanding group interactions in extreme, confined, and isolated microenvironments;

  • understanding the roles of sex, ethnicity, culture, and other human factors on performance;

  • understanding potentially disruptive behaviors;

  • developing means of behavior monitoring and interventions;

  • developing evidence-based criteria for reliable means of crew selection and training and for the management of harmonious and productive crew interactions; and

  • training of both space-dwelling and ground-based support groups specifically selected for involvement in operations beyond Earth orbit.

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