TABLE 3–3 Medical Events and Recurrences Among Astronauts of All Nationalities on Mir, March 14, 1995, through June 12, 1998

Event

Number of Events

Recurrences

Superficial injury

43

2

Arrhythmia

32

98a

Musculoskeletal

29

NRb

Headache

17

8

Sleeplessness

13

9

Fatigue

17

4

Contact dermatitis

5

3

Surface burn

5

NR

Conjunctivitis

4

2

Acute respiratory infection

3

NR

Asthenia

3

2

Ocular foreign body

3

NR

Globe contusion

2

NR

Dental

2

NR

Constipation

1

NR

aSee Chapter 2.

bNR, not reported.

SOURCE: Marshburn, 2000b.

NOTE: Further information on symptom duration, functional impact, or recurrences, especially the nature of arrhythmias and the number of astronauts who experienced them, is important for assessment of the potential impacts of such events on prolonged space missions. Other than arrhythmias, the medical events reported were minor, although most were certainly as vexing in space as they would be on Earth.

event is unpredictable, so preparations must be prioritized and must still be made for a wide spectrum of problems.

Evidence Base from Antarctic Expeditions

The Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) Health Register compiled 1,967 person-years of data from 1988 to 1997. It documents 5,103 illnesses and 3,910 injuries (Table 3–7). The distribution and variety are similar overall to those from spaceflight data.

Seventeen Australians, moreover, have died in the Antarctic and subantarctic since 1947 (Taylor and Gormly, 1997; D.J.Lugg, ANARE, personal communication, August 24, 2000). Excluding those conditions peculiar to



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