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CBiographical Sketches COMMITTEE JOHN E. VANDERVEEN (Chair) is the former director of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Office of Plant and Dairy Foods and Beverages in Washington, D.C. His previous position at the FDA was director of the Division of Nutrition at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. He also served in various capacities at the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas. He has received accolades for service from the FDA and the Air Force. Dr. Vanderveen is a member of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, American Institute of Nutrition, Aerospace Medical As- sociation, American Dairy Science Association, and the American Chemical Society; a fellow of the Institute of Food Technologists; and an honorary mem- ber of the American Dietetic Association. He has served as the treasurer of the American Society of Clinical Nutrition and as a member of the Institute of Food Technology's National Academy of Sciences Advisory Committee. Dr. Vander- veen holds a B.S. in agriculture from Rutgers University in New Jersey and a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of New Hampshire. LAWRENCE E. ARMSTRONG is an associate professor of exercise science at the University of Connecticut. He has joint appointments in the Department of Physiology and Neurobiology and the Department of Nutritional Sciences. Dr. Armstrong received his Ph.D. in human bioenergetics-exercise physiology from Ball State University. His research interests include thermoregulation, fluid- electrolyte balance, energy metabolism, exercise physiology, and the human heat illnesses. He previously served as a research physiologist at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. He is a fellow of the American 147

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148 CAFFEINE FOR MENTAL TASK PE~O~ANCE search Institute of Environmental Medicine. He is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine and a member of the Federation of American Socie- ties for Experimental Biology and the Aerospace Medical Association. GAIL E. BUTTERFIELD was director of nutrition research for Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Health Care System in California; a lecturer in the Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical School, visiting assistant professor in the Program of Human Biology, Stanford University; and director of nutrition in the Program in Sports Medicine, Stanford University Medical School. Her pre- vious academic appointments were at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Butterfield belonged to the American Institute of Nutrition, American Society for Clinical Nutrition, American Dietetic Association, and American Physio- logical Society. She was a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), served as chair of the Pronouncements Committee, and was on the ACSM Board of Trustees; she also was president and executive director of the southwest chapter of that organization. She was a member of the Respiratory and Applied Physiology Study Section of the National Institutes of Health and had served on the editorial boards of the following journals: Medicine and Sci- ence in Sports and Exercise, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Health and Fitness Journal of ACSM, Canadian Journal of Clinical Sports Medicine, and International Journal of Sports Nutrition. Dr. Butterfield received her A.B. in biological sciences, M.A. in anatomy, and M.S. and Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of California, Berkeley. Her research interests included nutrition in exercise, effect of growth factors on protein metabolism in the elderly, and metabolic fuel use in women exposed to high altitude. She died suddenly on December 27, 1999. WANDA L. CHENOWETH is a professor in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at Michigan State University. Previously, she held posi- tions as teaching associate at the University of Iowa and University of Califor- nia, Berkeley. Other work experience includes positions as research dietitian and head clinical dietitian at University of Iowa Hospitals and as research dietitian at the Mayo Clinic. She is a member of the American Society for Nutritional Sci- ences, American Dietetic Association, and Institute of Food Technology. She serves as a reviewer for several journals, including the Journal of the American Dietetic Association`, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, and Journal of Nutrition, and is a member of the Associate Editorial Board of Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. She has served on a technical review committee for the Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer Program of the National Cancer Institute and as a site evaluator for the Commission on Evaluation of Dietetic Education of the Ameri- can Dietetic Association. Her research interests are in the areas of mineral bio- availability and clinical nutrition. Dr. Chenoweth completed a B.S. in dietetics from the University of Iowa, dietetic internship and M.S. in nutrition at the Uni-

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APPENDIX C 149 versity of Iowa, and a Ph.D. in nutrition at the University of California, Ber- keley. JOHANNA T. DRYER is the director of the Frances Stern Nutrition Center at New England Medical Center, professor of medicine and community health at the Tufts University School of Medicine, and professor of nutrition at Tufts University School of Nutrition in Boston. She is also senior scientist at the Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts. Dr. Dwyer is the author or coauthor of more than 100 research articles and 185 review articles published in scientific journals. Her work centers on life-cycle-related concerns such as the prevention of diet-related disease in children and adolescents and maximization of quality of life and health in the elderly. She also has a long-standing interest in vegetarian and other alternative life-styles. Dr. Dwyer is a past president of the American In- stitute of Nutrition, past secretary of the American Society for Clinical Nutri- tion, and past president and current fellow of the Society for Nutrition Educa- tion. She served on the Program Development Board of the American Public Health Association from 1989 to 1992 and is a former member of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, and a member of the Technical Advisory Committee of the Nutrition Screening Initiative, and the Board of Directors of the American Institute of Wine and Food. As a Robert Wood John- son Health Policy Fellow (198 ~1981), she served on the personal staffs of Senator Richard Lugar (A-Indiana) and Senator Barbara Mikulski (D- Maryland). Dr. Dwyer has received numerous honors and awards for her work in the field of nutrition, including the 1996 W.O. Atwater Award of the USDA and the J. Harvey Wiley Award from the Society for Nutrition Education. She gave the Lenna Frances Cooper Lecture at the annual meeting of the American Dietetic Association in 1990. Dr. Dwyer is currently on the editorial boards of Family Economics and Nutrition Review and the advisory board of Clinics in Applied Nutrition; she is a contributing editor to Nutrition Reviews, as well as a reviewer for the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, American Jour- nal of Clinical Nutrition, and American Journal of Public Health. She received her D.Sc. and M.Sc. from the Harvard School of Public Health, an M.S. from the University of Wisconsin, and her undergraduate degree with distinction from Cornell University. JOHN D. FERNSTROM is professor of psychiatry, pharmacology, and be- havioral neuroscience at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and director of the Basic Neuroendocrinology Program at the Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic. He received his B.S. in biology and his Ph.D. in nutritional biochemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He was a postdoctoral fellow in neuroendocrinology at the Roche Institute for Molecular Biology in Nutley, New Jersey. Before coming to the University of Pittsburgh,

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150 CAFFEINE FOR MENTAL TASK PENANCE Dr. Fernstrom was an assistant and then associate professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Science at MIT. He has served on numerous governmental advisory committees. He presently is a member of the National Advisory Coun- cil of the Monell Chemical Senses Center, chairman of the Neurosciences Sec- tion of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences (ASNS), and a member of the ASNS Council. He is a member of numerous professional societies, includ- ing the American Institute of Nutrition, the American Society for Clinical Nutri- tion, the American Physiological Society, the American Society for Pharmacol- ogy and Experimental Therapeutics, the American Society for Neurochemistry, the Society for Neuroscience, and the Endocrine Society. Among other awards, Dr. Fernstrom received the Mead-Johnson Award of the American Institute of Nutrition, a Research Scientist Award from the National Institute of Mental Health, a Wellcome Visiting Professorship in the Basic Medical Sciences, and an Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship in Neurochemistry. His current major research interest concerns the influence of the diet and drugs on the synthesis of neuro- transmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems. ROBIN B. KANAREK is professor of psychology and professor of nutrition at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts, where she also is the chair of the Department of Psychology. Her prior experience includes research fellow, Divi- sion of Endocrinology, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medi- cine, and research fellow in nutrition at Harvard University. In addition to re- viewing for several journals, including Science, Brain Research Bulletin, Journal of Nutrition, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, and Annals of Internal Medicine, she is a member of the editorial boards of Physiology and Behavior and the Tufts Diet and Nutrition Newsletter and past editor-in-chief of Nutrition and Behavior. Dr. Kanarek has served on ad hoc review committees for the National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, and U.S. Department of Agriculture nutrition research, as well as the Member Program Committee of the Eastern Psychological Association. She is a fellow of the American College of Nutrition, and her other professional memberships include the American Institute of Nutrition, New York Academy of Sciences, Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior, and Society for Neurosciences. Dr. Kanarek received a B.A. in biology from Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio, and an M.S. and Ph.D. in psychology from Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. ORVILLE A. LEVANDER is a research chemist for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutrient Requirements and Functions Laboratory in the Human Nutrition Research Center in Beltsville, Maryland. He was resident fellow in biochemistry at Colombia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons, and research associate at Harvard University's School of Public Health. Dr. Levander served on the Food and Nutrition Board's Committee on

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APPENDIX C 151 Dietary Allowances. He also served on panels of the National Research Coun- cil's Committees on Animal Nutrition and on the Biological Effects of Envi- ronmental Pollutants. He was a member of the U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Nutrition Scientists and temporary adviser to the World Health Organization's Environmental Health Criteria Document on Selenium. Dr. Levander was awarded the Osborne and Mendel Award from the American Institute of Nutrition. His society memberships include the American Institute of Nutrition, American Chemical Society, and American Society for Clinical Nu- trition. Dr. Levander received his B.A. from Cornell University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. ESTHER M. STERNBERG is chief of the Section on Neuroendocrine Imunu- nology and Behavior and director of the Integrated Neural Immune Program of the National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program at the Na- tional Institutes of Health (NIH). Dr. Sternberg received her M.D. degree and trained in rheumatology at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. She did post- doctoral training at Washington University, Barnes Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri, in the Division of Allergy and Immunology. She was subsequently a Howard Hughes Associate and instructor in the Department of Medicine at Washington University and Barnes Hospital before joining NIH. Dr. Sternberg is internation- ally recogruzed for her ground-breaking discoveries in the area of central nervous syste~immune system interactions. She has received the Arthritis Foundation William R. Felts Award for Excellence in Rheumatology Research Publications, has been awarded the Public Health Service Superior Service Award, and has been elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation in recognition of this work. Dr. Sternberg is also internationally recognized as a foremost authority on the L-hyptophan eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (L-TAP-EMS). She was the first to describe this syndrome in relation to a similar drug L-5- hydroxyLyptophan and published this landmark article in the New England Jour- nal of Medicine in 1980. She received the Food and Drug Comm~ssioner's cita- tion for her work elucidating the pathogenesis ofthis syndrome. MARY I. POOS (Food and Nutrition Board [FIBS Staff; Study Director) is project director for the Committee on Military Nutrition Research. She joined the FN]3 of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in November 1997. She has been a project director for the National Academy of Sciences since 1990. Prior to offi- cially joining the FNB staff, she served as a project director for the National Research Council's Board on Agriculture for more than seven years, two of which were spent on loan to the FNB. Her work with the FNB includes senior staff officer for the IOM report, The Program of Research for Military Nursing and study director for the reports, A Review of the Department of Defense's Program for Breast Cancer Research and Vitamin C Fortification of Food Aid Commodities. Currently, she also serves as study director to the Subcommittee

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152 CAFFEINE FOR MENTAL TASK PERFORMANCE on Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes. While working with the Board on Agriculture, Dr. Poos was responsible for the Committee on Animal Nutrition and directed the production of seven reports in the Nutrient Require- ments of Domestic Animals series, including a letter report to the commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration concerning the importance of selenium in animal nutrition. Prior to joining the National Academies she was consultant- owner of Nutrition Consulting Services of Greenfield, Massachusetts; assistant professor in the Depa~l~ent of Veterinary and Animal Sciences at the Univer- sity of Massachusetts, Amherst; and adjunct assistant professor in the Depart- ment of Animal Sciences, University of Vermont. She received her B.S. in biol- ogy from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and a Ph.D. in animal sciences (nutrition-biochemistry) from the University of Kentucky; she completed a postdoctoral fellowship in the Department of Animal Sciences Area of Excellence Program at the University of Nebraska. Dr. Poos's areas of re- search interest include protein and nitrogen metabolism and nutrition-reproduc- tion interactions. SPEAKERS MICHAEL H. BONNET is professor of neurology at Wright State University of Medicine in Dayton, Ohio. At the Sleep Laboratory in the Department of Neurol- ogy at the Depar~nent of Veterans' Affairs Hospital in Dayton, Dr. Bonnet con- ducts research in the areas of sleep deprivation, sleep fragmentation, and insomnia. JACK L. BRIGGS is the senior food technologist for the Department of De- fense Combat Feeding Program, U.S. Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command, at the Natick Soldier Center. Previously he held positions as a food scientist for Carnation Co., senior scientist at Lipton, and director of research and development at Brilliant Seafood. He received his master's degree in bio- chemistry from Colorado State University. In his present position as senior food technologist, he is responsible for planning and conducting applications engi- neering and development activities for ration components. In addition, he coor- dinates and advises on special technical problems related to the Department of Defense procurement of operational ration components. Currently, Mr. Briggs is working on the formulation and fabrication of novel foods with performance enhancement potential. JOHN A. CALDWELL is an experimental psychologist and the director of sustained operations research at the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Labora- tory, where he conducts a variety of research on the performance of helicopter pilots. His studies are aimed at fully understanding the effects of sleep depriva- tion and aviator fatigue and developing countermeasures for use in the opera- tional aviator environment. He conducts both simulator and in-flight pilot per-

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APPENDIX C 153 formance studies to enhance the efficiency, safety, and well-being of aviators in sustained operations. His efforts have been published in more than 80 separate articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals and laboratory technical reports. Dr. Caldwell is an adjunct faculty member at the School of Aerospace Medicine and the Aviation Pre Command Course at Fort Rucker, and he frequently lectures at safety briefings and scientific symposia. He is a member of the National Sleep Foundation's Speakers Bureau on operator fatigue and frequently consults with various organizations on the effects of fatigue on pilots and methods for over- coming the adverse impact of fatigue in the aviation environment. ROLAND R. GRIFFITHS is a professor of behavioral biology and professor of neuroscience at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland. He received his Ph.D. in psychopharmacology from the University of Minnesota in 1972. Excluding abstracts and short reports, the total number of Dr. Griffiths' publications exceeds 200, and he has published more than 25 articles directly related to caffeine use in humans and caffeine dependence. STEPHEN G. HOLTZMAN is a professor of pharmacology at Emory Univer- sity School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia. In addition, he holds an appointment as a collaborative scientist in the Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center at Emory. He received his Ph.D. in pharmacology at the University of Michigan in 1969. Dr. Holtzman has won numerous honors and served on various committees related to drug abuse and dependence. JOHN L. IVY is professor and coordinator of the Exercise Science Program in the College of Education, Department of Kinesiology and Health, and the Col- lege of Pharmacy, Division of Pharmacology, at the University of Texas in Aus- tin. In 1998 he was awarded the Margie Gurley Seay Centennial Professorship. Other honors include a fellowship in the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education, Dean's Fellowship for Excellence in Research, the Judy Spence Frank Endowed Fellowship for Excellence, and membership in Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society. Dr. Ivy was associate editor of Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sports, and currently serves on the editorial boards of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, American Journal of Physiol- ogy, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Journal of Optimal Nutrition, Interna- tional Journal of Sports Nutrition, and Diabetes Forecast. RICHARD F. JOHNSON is a research psychologist in the Military Perform- ance Division at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), Natick, Massachusetts. He received his Ph.D. in psychology ( 1970) from Brandeis University, where he was both a National Aeronautics and Space Administration trainee and a Woodrow Wilson dissertation fellow. Prior to joining USARIEM in 1984, he served as a captain in the U.S. Army Medical

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154 CAFFEINE FOR MENTAL TASK PE~O~NCE Service Corps (197~1972), was a National Institute of Mental Health grantee (1972-1976), and was a research psychologist with the U.S. Army Natick Re- search and Development Laboratories (197~1983~. He is a senior lecturer in psychology at Northeastern University and has published in the areas of psycho- physiology, experimental research methodology, and stress. He is a fellow of both the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society, and is a past president of the Natick Chapter of Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society. His current research interests include the effects of environ- mental extremes and military operational demands on vigilance, psychomotor behavior, and subjective response. GARY H. KAMIMORI is a research physiologist in the Deparunent of Neuro- biology and Behavior, Division of Neuropsychiatry, at Walter Reed Army In- stitute of Research. MARY A. KAUTZ has been a research psychologist in the Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Division of Neuropsychiatry, at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) since January 1998. She came on active duty as a direct commissioned officer in October 1997. She holds a Ph.D. in experimental psychology from the American University in Washington, D.C., and has completed two postdoctoral fellowships one at Johns Hopkins Univer- sity School of Medicine and a second at Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University. Her interests prior to coming on active duty included behavioral psychopharmacology research with benzodiazapines and alcohol in nonhuman primates. While at WRAIR, her research focus has been on deter- mining militarily relevant relationships between variables, including physiologi- cal measures of brain activity, sleep, arousal, cognitive performance, and drugs (particularly stimulants as they are used to enhance cognitive performance fol- lowing extended periods of sleep deprivation). HARRIS R. LIEBERMAN is deputy chief of the Military Nutrition and Bio- chemistry Division of the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medi- cine (USARIEM) in Natick, Massachusetts. Dr. Lieberman is an internationally recognized expert in the area of nutrition and behavior and has published more than 90 original, full-length papers in scientific journals and edited books. He has been an invited lecturer at numerous national and international conferences, government research laboratories, and universities. Dr. Lieberman received his Ph.D. in physiological psychology in 1977 from the University of Florida. Upon completing his graduate training he was awarded a National Institutes of Health fellowship to conduct postdoctoral research at the Department of Psychology and Brain Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). In 1980 he was appointed to the research staff at MIT and established an interdiscipli- nary research program in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences to

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APPENDIX C 155 examine the effects of various food constituents and drugs on human behavior and brain function. Key accomplishments of the laboratory included the devel- opment of appropriate methods for assessing the effects of food constituents and other subtle environmental factors on human brain function and the determina- tion that specific foods and hormones reliably alter human performance. In 1990 Dr. Lieberman joined the civilian research staff of USARIEM where he has continued his work in nutrition and behavior. He has addressed the effects of various nutritional factors, diets, and environmental stress on animal and human performance, brain function, and behavior. His research program has focused on developing and applying a variety of emerging technologies to sustaining and enhancing human performance. DAVID M. PENETAR currently is the commander of the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts. He earned his Ph.D. in psychopharmacology from the University of Minnesota in 1977. His research experience includes the assessment of sleep deprivation and caffeine effects on cognitive performance conducted while assigned to the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. W.K. PRUSACZYK received his B.A. and M.S. degrees in psychology and his Ph.D. in exercise physiology from the University of Georgia. He then went on active duty in the U.S. Army and was stationed at the U.S. Army Research In- stitute of Environmental Medicine in Natick, Massachusetts. After serving three years in the Military Ergonomics Division, Dr. Prusaczyk left active duty and began work at the Naval Health Research Center (NHRC), San Diego, Califor- nia. While at NHRC his early work focused on thermoregulation and thermal protection systems for Naval Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) personnel. After five years of work in the field with SEALs, Dr. Prusaczyk assumed the position of head, Applied Physiology Division, in the Human Performance Department at NHRC, managing broad research projects in thermal physiology, occupational physiol- ogy, and body composition. In 1997 Dr. Prusaczyk was promoted to head, Hu- man Performance Department. His current research interests are in thermal physiology and protective systems, occupational physiology, and performance enhancement methodologies. CHRISTINE SCHLICTING is from the Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory at the Naval Submarine Base, New London, Connecticut. ANDREW SMITH is professor of experimental psychology and director of the Health Psychology Research Unit, University of Bristol. He did his undergradu- ate and Ph.D. work at University College in London. He conducted postdoctoral research at Oxford University from 1976 to 1982. He then worked for the Medi- cal Research Council at Sussex University from 1982 to 1988 and was a reader

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156 CAFFEINE FOR MENTAL TASKPE~O~ANCE at University of Wales College of Cardiff from 1990 to 1993 before taking up his current post at Bristol. He has published widely in the areas of nutrition and behavior, with one of his main interests being the effects of caffeine on perform- ance in low-alertness situations. His research is supported by research councils, government agencies, and industry. STEVEN R. SMITH graduated from the University of Texas at Arlington in 1984 and the University of Texas Medical School in San Antonio in 1988. He went on to take a residency at Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas and a fellowship in endocrinology at the Ochsner Clinic in New Orleans. He moved to the Pennington Biomedical Research Center in 1994 as an instructor to work on projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Defense. He joined the faculty in 1995 and currently acts as director of the Inpatient Metabolic Unit at the Pennington Center at the level of assistant professor. Dr. Smith's research program includes basic research into the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance and insulin signaling, clinical studies of energy balance and macronutrient oxidation, and impact of body fat and body fat distribution on the complications of obesity. LAWRENCE L. SPRIET is a professor in the Department of Human Biology and Nutritional Sciences at the University of Guelph in Guelph, Ontario, Can- ada. He teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in skeletal muscle metabo- lism, as well as graduate courses in human muscle metabolism, nutrition, and exercise. Dr. Spriet's research employs both animal and human models to ex- amine the biochemical regulation of the interaction between fat and carbohy- drate metabolism in skeletal muscle following dietary interventions and during exercise. Much of this work examines key regulatory enzymes that control the flux through the pathways that produce energy during exercise. His work is supported by funding from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. Dr. Spriet is a member of the American and Canadian Physiological Society, American College of Sports Medicine, and Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. ROBERT STICKGOLD received his doctoral training in biochemistry at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and postdoctoral training at Stanford and Harvard Medical Schools. His research has ranged from the enzymology of bacterial cell wall synthesis to analysis of the formal properties of rapid eye movement sleep dreams. For the last 10 years, Dr. Stickgold has focused on the state-dependent aspects of cognition, studying how cognitive functions are al- tered during sleep, as a consequence of sleep, and in the absence of sleep. His recent work has focused on the critical role of sleep in memory consolidation and integration, as well as on physiological measurements of vigilance.

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APPENDIX C 157 HANS VAN DONGEN earned his Ph.D. in physiology in 1998 at Leiden Uni- versity in the Netherlands and is currently a research assistant professor in the Division of Sleep and Chronobiology at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in Philadelphia. He has published widely on the subject of biologi- cal rhythms and sleep patterns. He is a member of several professional societies concerned with sleep research and chronobiology, and has served as a reviewer for the journal Sleep. JA1\,IES K. WYATT is an instructor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and associate psychologist at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston. He received his Ph.D. in clinical psychology at the University of Arizona in Tucson in 1995. He is a member of the American Psychology Association, American Sleep Disorders Association, Sleep Research Society, and American Association for the Advancement of Science. In addition, Dr. Wyatt is a reviewer for Sleep.