SPECIAL REPORT 260

Strategic Highway Research

SAVING LIVES REDUCING CONGESTION IMPROVING QUALITY OF LIFE

Committee for a Study for a Future Strategic Highway Research Program

TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD

National Research Council

National Academy Press

Washington, D.C.

2001



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Strategic Highway Research: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life -- Special Report 260 SPECIAL REPORT 260 Strategic Highway Research SAVING LIVES REDUCING CONGESTION IMPROVING QUALITY OF LIFE Committee for a Study for a Future Strategic Highway Research Program TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD National Research Council ■ National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 2001

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Strategic Highway Research: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life -- Special Report 260 Transportation Research Board Special Report 260 Subscriber Categories IA planning and administration IB energy and environment II design IIIB materials and construction IV operations and safety Transportation Research Board publications are available by ordering individual publications directly from the TRB Business Office, through the Internet at www.TRB.org or national-academies.org/trb, or by annual subscription through organizational or individual affiliation with TRB. Affiliates and library subscribers are eligible for substantial discounts. For further information, contact the Transportation Research Board Business Office, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418 (telephone 202-334-3213; fax ; or e-mail TRBsales@nas.edu). Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to the procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The study was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data National Research Council (U.S.). Transportation Research Board. Committee for a Study for a Future Strategic Highway Research Program. Strategic highway research : saving lives, reducing congestion, improving quality of life / Committee for a Study for a Future Strategic Highway Research Program. p. cm. –– (Special report ; 260) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-309-07243-3 1. Traffic safety––United States. 2. Highway research––United States. 3. Traffic congestion––United States. I. Title. II. Special report (National Research Council (U.S.). Transportation Research Board) ; 260. HE5614.2.N28 2001 388.3’14’0973––dc21 2001056350

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Strategic Highway Research: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life -- Special Report 260 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a unit of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board’s mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation by stimulating and conducting research, facilitating the dissemination of information, and encouraging the implementation of research results. The Board’s varied activities annually engage more than 4,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation.

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Strategic Highway Research: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life -- Special Report 260 Committee for a Study for a Future Strategic Highway Research Program C. Michael Walton, Chair, Professor of Civil Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin Bradley L. Mallory, Vice Chair, Secretary, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Harrisburg Joel D. Anderson, Executive Vice President, California Trucking Association, West Sacramento E. Dean Carlson, Secretary, Kansas Department of Transportation, Topeka Frank L. Danchetz, Chief Engineer, Georgia Department of Transportation, Atlanta Henry E. Dittmar, President and Chief Executive Officer, Great American Station Foundation, Las Vegas, New Mexico Francis B. Francois, Consultant, former Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Bowie, Maryland David R. Gehr, Director of Strategic Planning, Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc., Herndon, Virginia Susan Martinovich, Assistant Director/Chief Engineer, Nevada Department of Transportation, Carson City Herbert H. Richardson, Director, Texas Transportation Institute; Associate Vice Chancellor for Engineering, Texas A&M University System; Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; College Station, Texas Henry G. Schwartz, Jr., Chairman, Sverdrup Civil, Inc., Maryland Heights, Missouri Thomas R. Warne, President, Tom Warne and Associates, South Jordan, Utah David K. Willis, President and Chief Executive Officer, AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, Washington, D.C. Liaison Representatives John Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials David L. Huft, Program Manager—Research, South Dakota Department of Transportation; Chair, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Research Advisory Committee Dennis C. Judycki, Deputy Executive Director, Federal Highway Administration Anthony R. Kane, Director of Engineering and Technical Services, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Transportation Research Board Staff Ann M. Brach, Study Director

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Strategic Highway Research: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life -- Special Report 260 Preface In June 1998, the United States Congress passed the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). This bill, which reauthorized the federal-aid highway program, called for the Transportation Research Board (TRB) “to conduct a study to determine the goals, purposes, research agenda and projects, administrative structure, and fiscal needs for a new strategic highway research program to replace the program established under [the section of the United States Code establishing the first Strategic Highway Research Program] or a similar effort.”1 The committee interpreted this charge to imply that the new program was to follow a model for the conduct of highway research that was initiated with the first Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP), authorized by Congress in 1987. This model can be characterized as a focused, time-constrained, management-driven program designed to complement existing highway research programs.2 To carry out this congressional request, TRB established a committee of leaders from the highway community, chaired by C. Michael Walton of The University of Texas at Austin, with Bradley L. Mallory of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation as vice chair. The primary task of the Committee for a Study for a Future Strategic Highway Research Program (F-SHRP) was to propose a research program aimed at strategic highway needs; therefore, the committee members were chosen for their demonstrated ability to provide strategic leadership in public agencies, private-sector firms, academia, and user and stakeholder associations within the highway community. Brief biographies of the committee members are given at the end of this report (see Study Committee Biographical Information). The committee also benefited 1 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, Public Law 105-178, Section 5112, “Study of a Future Strategic Highway Research Program.” 2 It can be argued, with good reason, that the American Association of State Highway Officials Road Test, conducted in the late 1950s, also possessed many of these characteristics.

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Strategic Highway Research: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life -- Special Report 260 from the contributions of liaisons from the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), who coordinated the committee’s work with their organizations and facilitated outreach to their members throughout the study. This study was carried out in close cooperation with the National Research Council’s (NRC) Research and Technology Coordinating Committee (RTCC), which performs a continuing review of FHWA’s research and technology programs. RTCC’s report The Federal Role in Highway Research and Technology (TRB 2001) provides a helpful context for the present study, including an overview of the highway industry, highway research and technology programs, and national priorities for highway research. In addition to the RTCC members who were also members of the F-SHRP committee, the following individuals served on RTCC during the development of this report: Allan L. Abbott, Director of Public Works and Utilities, City of Lincoln, Nebraska; Dwight M. Bower, Director, Idaho Transportation Department; Richard P. Braun, Minnesota Guidestar; John E. Breen, Nasser I. Al-Rashid Chair in Civil Engineering, The University of Texas; Forrest M. Council, Highway Safety Research Center, University of North Carolina; Reid Ewing, Research Director, Surface Transportation Policy Project; Irwin Feller, Director and Professor of Economics, Institute for Policy Research and Evaluation, Pennsylvania State University; Larry R. Goode, Director of Transportation Planning, Policy and Finance, Institute of Transportation Research and Education, North Carolina State University; Jack Kay, Transportation Advisor, Science Applications International Corporation; Leon Kenison, Commissioner, New Hampshire Department of Transportation; Joe P. Mahoney, Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Washington; Karen M. Miller, Commissioner, District I Commission for Boone County, Missouri; James E. Roberts, Chief Deputy Director, California Department of Transportation; Sandra Rosenbloom, Director, The Drachman Institute for Land and Regional Development, University of Arizona; Michael M. Ryan, Deputy Secretary for Highway Administration, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation; David Spivey, Executive Vice President, Asphalt Paving Association of Washington, Inc.; and Dale F. Stein, President Emeritus, Michigan Technological University. The study was conducted under the overall supervision of Stephen R. Godwin, Director of TRB’s Studies and Information Services Division. Ann M. Brach served as study director and wrote the report under the direction of the committee.

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Strategic Highway Research: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life -- Special Report 260 This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. Appreciation is expressed to the following individuals for their review of this report: Richard E. Balzhiser, Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, California; Randall Erikson, North Oaks, Minnesota; Robert A. Frosch, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Thomas D. Larson, Lemont, Pennsylvania; Michael D. Meyer, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Alison Smiley, Human Factors North, Inc., Toronto, Canada; and James W. van Loben Sels, Parsons Brinckerhoff, Columbia, South Carolina. Although these reviewers provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the report’s findings and conclusions, nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Alexander H. Flax, Potomac, Maryland, and Lester A. Hoel, University of Virginia, Charlottesville. Appointed by NRC, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Suzanne Schneider, Assistant Executive Director of TRB, managed the report review process. The report was edited and prepared for publication under the supervision of Nancy Ackerman, Director of Reports and Editorial Services. Rona Briere edited the report with support from Kristin Motley. Alisa Decatur prepared the manuscript. John McCracken, Joy Kelly, and Sally Hoffmaster of FHWA provided photographs for the cover. Special thanks go to Marion Johnson, Frances E. Holland, and Jocelyn Sands for assistance with meeting arrangements, communications with committee members, and administrative matters. The proposed research in this report reflects the insights and cooperation of hundreds of people who responded to the committee’s requests for information and input. Appendix A describes the outreach process used and lists

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Strategic Highway Research: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life -- Special Report 260 many of the participants. Special thanks are due to AASHTO technical committees and staff, FHWA staff, TRB committees and staff, the working groups of the National Research and Technology Partnership Forum, and many academicians and private consultants who generously contributed their time and expertise. Their willingness to support this effort is a testimony to the importance of research and technology in transportation and the best predictor of the success of the proposed program. Reference ABBREVIATION TRB Transportation Research Board TRB. 2001. Special Report 261: The Federal Role in Highway Research and Technology. National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

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Strategic Highway Research: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life -- Special Report 260 Contents     Executive Summary   1 1   Introduction   13      Context for a Future Strategic Highway Research Program,   13      Study Approach,   22      Organization of This Report,   29      References,   29      Additional Sources,   29 2   The First Strategic Highway Research Program   32      The Strategic Transportation Research Study,   33      Transition from STRS to SHRP,   34      Strategic Highway Research Program,   35      SHRP Implementation,   36      Assessment of SHRP,   37      Concluding Comments,   43      References,   43      Additional Sources,   44 3   A Future Strategic Highway Research Program: Overview   46      Vision,   47      Strategic Focus Areas and Proposed Research Programs,   48 4   Renewal: Accelerating the Renewal of America’s Highways   49      Challenge of Highway Renewal,   49      Meeting the Highway Renewal Challenge Through a Future Strategic Highway Research Program,   54      Proposed F-SHRP Research,   58      Relationship to Other Work,   65

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Strategic Highway Research: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life -- Special Report 260      Administrative and Implementation Considerations,   66      References,   68      Additional Sources,   69 5   Safety: Making a Significant Improvement in Highway Safety   71      Challenge of Highway Safety,   71      Meeting the Highway Safety Challenge Through a Future Strategic Highway Research Program,   75      Proposed F-SHRP Research,   78      Relationship to Other Work,   92      Administrative and Implementation Considerations,   94      References,   95      Additional Sources,   96 6   Reliability: Providing a Highway System with Reliable Travel Times   98      Challenge of Providing Reliable Highway Travel Times,   98      Providing Solutions for the Reliability Challenge Through a Future Strategic Highway Research Program,   103      Proposed F-SHRP Research,   105      Relationship to Other Work,   113      Administrative and Implementation Considerations,   114      References,   114      Additional Sources,   115 7   Capacity: Providing Highway Capacity in Support of the Nation’s Economic, Environmental, and Social Goals   117      Challenge of Providing New Highway Capacity in an Environmentally, Economically, and Socially Responsive Manner,   117      Meeting the Challenge of Providing New Highway Capacity Through a Future Strategic Highway Research Program,   121      Proposed F-SHRP Research,   123      Relationship to Other Work,   130      Administrative and Implementation Considerations,   131      References,   131      Additional Sources,   131

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Strategic Highway Research: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life -- Special Report 260 8   Administrative and Funding Structure   135      Organizational Characteristics of Successful Applied Research Programs,   135      Criteria for F-SHRP Administrative Structure,   139      Comparison of Alternative Administrative Structures,   140      Recommended Administrative Structure,   144      Implementation Considerations During the Research Phase,   145      Funding Requirements and Mechanism,   147      Interim Work Requirements,   148      Reference,   149      Additional Sources,   150 9   Recommendations   152      Research Program Recommendation,   152      Administrative and Funding Recommendations,   154      Implementation Recommendation,   155      Interim Work Recommendation,   156 Appendix A   Committee Meetings and Outreach Process   157 Appendix B   Development of Research Focus Areas   167 Appendix C   Review of Related Work and Analysis of Research Gaps   192     Study Committee Biographical Information   200

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