Index

A

Abortion, social coercion, 23

Abstinence, postpartum, 47, 59, 243

Africa, 41

see also specific countries

economic theories, 51, 118, 254–261

mass media, 209, 220

Sub-Saharan, 43, 52, 58, 147, 220–221, 254–261

Age factors, 148, 185, 210, 254

Aggregate outcomes, 2, 7, 11, 42, 56, 67, 70, 73, 78, 79–81, 82, 98, 107, 121, 137

mass media, 214–215, 217–220, 222–223

Algeria, 52

Anthropological approaches, 11, 30, 40, 41, 48–49, 138–178

contraceptive use, 138, 143, 144–148, 153–154

economic factors, 134–135, 138–139

education, 142, 158–165

family planning, general, 138, 144–146, 158–165

family size, 138, 144–145

geographic factors, 138, 139, 144, 149, 151–152, 154

historical perspectives, 139, 140–143, 147, 149

mortality rates, 144, 145

practice theory, 74, 75, 90, 106, 142

rural areas, 145, 147, 154–157

socioeconomic status, 138

temporal factors, 138, 143, 144, 145

Asia, 12, 41, 42, 51, 115

see also East Asia;

specific countries

Attitudes and beliefs, 3, 6, 7, 30, 44, 103, 185–186, 187, 244–245, 252, 259

see also Cultural factors

about contraception, 3–4, 8, 10, 44, 46, 47–48, 49–50, 55–56, 148, 240–264

discrete choice models, 128

false uniqueness effect, 183

about health care providers, 55, 158–165

husband’s disapproval, 50, 56, 259, 260

ideational change, 9–13, 39–40, 230–231

mass media, 215, 216, 220, 225–226, 227, 228–231

religion-based, 2, 39, 49, 50, 52, 54, 155– 157, 244, 245, 259

social effects model, 25, 26, 28, 193, 194, 195–196

thresholds of resistance, 75, 93, 95–96, 100–101, 108

women’s attitudes toward male contraceptives, 49

Australia, 12



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Diffusion Processes and Fertility Transition: Selected Perspectives Index A Abortion, social coercion, 23 Abstinence, postpartum, 47, 59, 243 Africa, 41 see also specific countries economic theories, 51, 118, 254–261 mass media, 209, 220 Sub-Saharan, 43, 52, 58, 147, 220–221, 254–261 Age factors, 148, 185, 210, 254 Aggregate outcomes, 2, 7, 11, 42, 56, 67, 70, 73, 78, 79–81, 82, 98, 107, 121, 137 mass media, 214–215, 217–220, 222–223 Algeria, 52 Anthropological approaches, 11, 30, 40, 41, 48–49, 138–178 contraceptive use, 138, 143, 144–148, 153–154 economic factors, 134–135, 138–139 education, 142, 158–165 family planning, general, 138, 144–146, 158–165 family size, 138, 144–145 geographic factors, 138, 139, 144, 149, 151–152, 154 historical perspectives, 139, 140–143, 147, 149 mortality rates, 144, 145 practice theory, 74, 75, 90, 106, 142 rural areas, 145, 147, 154–157 socioeconomic status, 138 temporal factors, 138, 143, 144, 145 Asia, 12, 41, 42, 51, 115 see also East Asia; specific countries Attitudes and beliefs, 3, 6, 7, 30, 44, 103, 185–186, 187, 244–245, 252, 259 see also Cultural factors about contraception, 3–4, 8, 10, 44, 46, 47–48, 49–50, 55–56, 148, 240–264 discrete choice models, 128 false uniqueness effect, 183 about health care providers, 55, 158–165 husband’s disapproval, 50, 56, 259, 260 ideational change, 9–13, 39–40, 230–231 mass media, 215, 216, 220, 225–226, 227, 228–231 religion-based, 2, 39, 49, 50, 52, 54, 155– 157, 244, 245, 259 social effects model, 25, 26, 28, 193, 194, 195–196 thresholds of resistance, 75, 93, 95–96, 100–101, 108 women’s attitudes toward male contraceptives, 49 Australia, 12

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Diffusion Processes and Fertility Transition: Selected Perspectives B Bangladesh, 49, 50, 185 Benin, 48 Birth control, see also Contraceptives and contraception; Family planning abortion, social coercion, 23 abstinence, postpartum, 47, 59, 243 lactation interruption, 59, 148, 243 Brazil, 21, 219, 224, 229–230 Breastfeeding, see Lactation interruption C Cambodia, 20 Cameroon, 48, 165–166 Cognitive factors, 8, 17, 22, 29, 152, 179–207, 244–245, 245–263 see also Education; Educational attainment; Ideational change equations, 181, 240–264 Collective action theory, 68–70, 72, 77, 79– 86, 101 Colombia, 223 Complementarities, 125–127 Contagion models, 13, 17, 70, 78–79, 81, 86–89, 139, 182, 241 Contraceptives and contraception, 3–4, 6–11, 14, 45–49, 185 anthropological theory, 138, 143, 144–148, 153–154 attitudes and beliefs, 3–4, 8, 10, 44, 46, 47–48, 49–50, 55–56, 148, 240–264 cost of use, 17, 20–21, 23, 122–123, 139, 144, 259, 260 economic theory, 51–53, 122–123, 240–263 historical perspectives, vii, 3, 8, 39, 40, 43 interpersonal conversation about, 54–55, 139, 151–154, 192, 195, 217 mass media, 213, 215, 216, 220–223 parity-dependent birth control, 138, 144–145 psychic and social costs, 44–45 social effects model, 17, 20–21, 23, 122–123 social influence, 7, 14–17 (passim), 21, 22, 55–58 thresholds of use, 53–54 thresholds of resistance, 75, 93, 95–96, 100–101, 108 Cost and cost-benefit factors, 17, 18–20, 24, 188 childrearing, 2, 10, 11, 18, 24, 41–42, 51–52, 60, 67, 76, 120, 122–123, 133–134, 139, 144, 218–219, 242–243 collective action models, 81–82 communication technologies, 192, 210–211 contraceptive use, 17, 20–21, 23, 122–123, 139, 144, 259, 260 education, 51–52 family planning programs, 4, 122–123 mass media, 210, 211, 213, 218–221 microeconomic approaches, 2, 120–122, 133–134, 138–139, 145–146, 149– 154, 240–264 childrearing, 2, 10, 11, 18, 24, 41–42, 51–52, 60, 67, 76, 120, 122–123, 133–134, 139, 144, 218–219, 242– 243 mass media effects, 210, 219–221 sociological models, various, 67, 71, 73, 76, 81–82, 91, 93–94, 97, 101, 102– 109 television, 211, 218–219 Costa Rica, 43, 57 Cultural factors, vii–viii, 2, 59, 69, 71, 95, 104, 194–196, 240–241 see also Anthropological approaches; terms beginning “Social…” and “Socio” cultural lag, 12, 74, 217, 244 economic factors and, 52, 115–116, 134–135, 139, 241, 242, 244, 245–263 ethnicity, 68, 104, 128, 139 language factors, 42, 47, 68, 139, 142, 147–148, 149–153, 160–165, 181–182 religious factors, 2, 39, 49, 50, 52, 54, 155–157, 244, 245, 259 social effects model, 17–18 D Demographic and Health Survey, 27, 30, 104 sampling, 57

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Diffusion Processes and Fertility Transition: Selected Perspectives E East Asia, 12 Economic factors, 10, 12, 20, 24–25, 29, 41–42, 51–53, 58, 240–264 see also Cost and cost-effectiveness; Socioeconomic status anthropological theory, 134–135, 138–139 collective action models, 81–82 contraceptives and contraception, 51–53, 122–123, 240–263 cultural factors and, 52, 115–116, 134– 135, 139, 241, 242, 244, 245–263 educational attainment and, 51–52 industrialization, 2, 118 life expectancy, 51, 52 mass media, 210–211, 212 social effects model, 20, 115–137 sociological theory and, 66, 67, 68, 69, 93, 103–104, 108, 115–137 thresholds of contraceptive use, 53–54 time factors, 52–53, 123 Education, 10, 41 see also Mass media anthropological theory, 142, 158–165 cost and cost-effectiveness, 51–52 social learning, 14, 22, 41, 71–72, 107, 150–152, 241, 242, 251–253 Educational attainment, 2, 45, 50, 51–52, 76, 252 literacy, 50, 51, 139 Equations cognitive factors, 181, 240–264 collective action theory, 83–86 complementarities, social interactions as, 125–127 discrete choice, 127–130 game theory, 124–125, 127 estimation, models, 26–28, 66, 81, 84, 86, 89, 94, 98–101 (passim), 104, 107, 128, 131–135 new behavioral forms, 20, 30, 240–264 organizational theory, 89, 94 social effects model, 19, 20, 21, 24–25, 26, 125–133, 241, 242 sociological theory, 73, 78, 80–81, 83–86, 89, 90–95, 97–100 violence, collective, 80–81 Estimation, models, 26–28, 66, 81, 84, 86, 89, 94, 98–101 (passim), 104, 107, 128, 131–135 Ethnographic approaches, see Anthropological approaches Europe, 3, 4, 8, 12, 30, 39–40, 42, 46, 48, 51, 60, 69, 75, 102, 115, 117, 118, 120, 121, 135(n.3/4), 52 see also specific countries European Fertility Project (Princeton), 2, 8, 42–43, 53, 103–105, 118, 121, 135(n.2), 167(n.2), 242, 244 Expected utility theory, 182–183 F Family planning, 4–5, 8, 11, 41, 43, 44, 102–103, 258, 259 see also Contraceptives and contraception; Education; Mass media anthropological theory, 138, 144–146, 158–165 attitudes about health care providers, 55, 158–165 cost and cost-effectiveness, 4, 122–123 gender factors, 50, 56, 145–146, 259, 260 government programs, 4, 27–28, 45, 122–123, 158–165 mass media, 45, 213, 222–231, 232–233 mass media, 45, 210, 213, 222–235 social effects model, 28, 244–245 Family size, vii, 8, 10, 42, 43, 45, 47, 49, 58–59 anthropological theory, 138, 144–145 attitudes toward, 54 gender factors, 145–146 infanticide, 46, 59, 145 mass media, 212, 213 noncontraceptive management, 59 abstinence, postpartum, 47, 59, 243 infanticide, 46, 59, 145 lactation interruption, 59, 148, 243 parity-dependent birth control, 138, 144–145 social effects model, 17, 19, 122–123 social influence, 57–58, 75 Feedback effects, 17, 20, 26, 93, 107, 108 Females, see Gender factors France, 42

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Diffusion Processes and Fertility Transition: Selected Perspectives G Gambia, 147–148, 225 Game theory, 124–125, 127 Gender factors, 148, 254–261 see also Marriage and marital status children, parental biases, 145–146 discrete choice models, 128 educational attainment, 211, 212 family planning, general, 50, 56, 145–146, 259, 260 family planning workers, 50 female empowerment, 244 husband’s disapproval, 50, 56, 259, 260 interpersonal conversation, 54, 55 mass media, 211, 212, 220–221, 223–224, 229, 230–231 women’s attitudes toward male contraceptives, 49 Geographic factors, 42, 121, 192, 193 see also specific countries and continents anthropological theory, 138, 139, 144, 149, 151–152, 154 collective action theory, 85–86 global ecumene, 149 local, 13, 24, 25–26, 57, 151–152, 154–157, 192 long-distance, 25–26, 57, 192; see also Mass media rural areas, anthropological theory, 145, 147, 154–157 social influences, 57 socioeconomic status, 53–54 social networks, general, 69, 94, 95, 197 urban areas, 2, 41, 45, 104, 120, 211, 232, 252 Germany, 57 Government role, 59, 104 see also Political factors contraception, antipathy to, 52 family planning programs, 4, 27–28, 45, 122–123, 158–165 mass media, 45, 213, 222–231, 232– 233 political factors, 42, 50, 52, 54, 59–60, 68–69 Guatemala, 223–224 H Historical perspectives, vii, 1–4, 8, 17, 22, 27, 29, 30, 41, 240, 252 see also Europe; European Fertility Project (Princeton) anthropological theory, 139, 140–143, 147, 149 baby boom, 118 contraceptives and contraception, vii, 3, 8, 39, 40, 43 ideational change theory, 10, 39–42, 46, 48, 49, 59 mass media, 222–223 sociological explanations, 17, 22, 27, 77–79, 101, 108, 118 thresholds of contraceptive use, 53 Households, see Microeconomic approaches Human Development Index, 120 I Ideational change, 9–13, 18, 21, 22, 29, 106–107, 138, 179–207 see also Cognitive factors; Education; Mass media attitudes and beliefs, 9–13, 39–40, 230–231 Income, see Socioeconomic status India, 49 Individual utility maximization model, 42 Infanticide, 46, 59, 145 International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 3 Internet, 192 Iran, 223 J Japan, 145 Jordan, 54 K Kenya, 26, 50, 58, 159–162, 228 Korea, 57

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Diffusion Processes and Fertility Transition: Selected Perspectives L Lactation interruption, 59, 148, 243 Language factors, 42, 47, 68, 139, 142, 147–148, 149–153, 160–165, 181–182 Latin America, 42, 115 see also specific countries economic theories, 51, 52 socioeconomic status, 53–54 Life expectancy, vii, 59, 60, 102, 118 economic factors, 51, 52 Literacy, 50, 51, 139 M Males, see Gender factors Mali, 49, 226 Marriage and marital status, 23, 30, 40, 41, 45, 47, 121, 254–261 anthropological theory, 138 mass media programs and nonmarital/ marital sex, 210–211, 212, 226–227 thresholds of contraceptive use, 53–54 Mass media, viii, 3, 10, 14, 15–16, 44, 45, 77, 92, 191–192 aggregate outcomes, 214–215, 217–220, 222–223 attitudes and beliefs, 215, 216, 220, 225–226, 227, 228–231 contraceptives and contraception, 213, 215, 216, 220–223 cost and cost-effectiveness, 210, 211, 213, 218–221 economic factors, general, 210–211, 212 family planning, general, 45, 210, 213, 222–235 government programs, 45, 213, 222–231, 232–233 gender factors, 211, 212, 220–221, 223–224, 229, 230–231 Internet, 192 microeconomic effects, 210, 212, 219–221 mortality rates, 212 nonmarital/marital sex, 210–211, 212, 226–227 radio, 223–224, 225, 226–227, 230 social effects model, 17, 21, 25–26, 28, 29–30, 208–239 television, 209, 210–213, 218–219, 224– 225, 229, 230, 232 temporal factors, 210–211, 217–218, 234 Mathematical models, see Equations Mexico, 21 Microeconomic approaches, 2, 120–122, 133–134, 138–139, 145–146, 149–154, 240–264 childrearing, 2, 10, 11, 18, 24, 41–42, 51–52, 60, 67, 76, 120, 122–123, 133–134, 139, 144, 218–219, 242–243 mass media effects, 210, 219–221 Mortality rates, 2, 5, 59, 60, 102, 117, 118–119 see also Life expectancy anthropological theory, 144, 145 behavioral innovation, 9, 245 mass media, 212 Multiphasic response theory, 60 N National Sample Survey, 146 Nepal, 48, 226–227 Nigeria, 224–225, 228 O Organization theory, 28, 67, 72, 75, 76, 77, 81, 86–89, 94, 107, 108–109 equations, 89, 94 P Pakistan, 20 Peer influences, 44, 151 see also Social networks, general Peru, 223 Philippines, 54 Political factors, 42, 50, 52, 54, 59–60, 68–69 see also Government role Population Communication Services Program, 224–225 Practice theory, 74, 75, 90, 106, 142 Princeton European Project, see European Fertility Project (Princeton) Q Qualitative approaches, 228–231 see also Anthropological approaches

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Diffusion Processes and Fertility Transition: Selected Perspectives R Radio, 223–224, 225, 226–227, 230 Religious factors, 2, 39, 49, 50, 52, 54, 155–157, 244, 245, 259 Rural areas anthropological theory, 145, 147, 154–157 social influences, 57 socioeconomic status, 53–54 S Sampling, 28, 57 Social effects model, 6, 15, 17–28 attitudes and beliefs, 25, 26, 28, 193, 194, 195–196 complementarities, 125–127 contraception and contraceptives, 17, 20–21, 23, 122–123 economic theory and, 115–137 equations, 19, 20, 21, 24–25, 26, 125–133, 241, 242 family planning, general, 28, 244–245 family size, 17, 19, 122–123 feedback effects, 17, 20, 26, 93, 107, 108 mass media, 17, 21, 25–26, 28, 29–30, 208–239 time factors, 26, 123 Social influence, 7, 14–17 (passim), 21, 22, 55–58, 71–72, 81–89, 93–94, 106– 107, 108, 115–137, 150–152, 193, 242, 251–253 see also Anthropological approaches collective action theory, 68–70, 72, 77, 79–86, 101 contagion models, 13, 17, 70, 78–79, 81, 86–89, 139, 182, 241 contraceptives and contraception, 7, 14–17 (passim), 21, 22, 55–58 family size, 57–58, 75 rural areas, 57 temporal factors, 57–58, 74, 76, 92 Social learning, 14, 22, 41, 71–72, 107, 150–152, 241, 242, 251–253 see also Cognitive factors; Mass media Social networks, general, 2–3, 7, 13–17, 19, 25–26, 44, 66, 91–95, 97–101, 252 see also Cultural factors collective action theory, 82, 83, 85 contraception and, 3–4, 45, 46–47, 56, 187–190 geographic factors, 69, 94, 95, 197 informal vs formal, 3, 14, 15, 25, 27–28, 45, 46–47, 54–55, 73, 77 interpersonal conversations about contraception, 54–55, 139, 151–154, 192, 195, 217 mass media and, 15–16, 214–215, 229 peer influences, 44, 151 Socioeconomic status, vii–viii, 8, 12, 42, 53–54, 67, 68, 69, 71, 76, 93, 95, 103, 105, 117–118, 243, 252 see also Educational attainment anthropological theory, 138 collective action theory, 82, 84 rural areas, 53–54 television access, 211–212, 232 Sociological approaches, 11, 13, 19–20, 24, 29, 40, 41, 66–114, 244 collective action theory, 68–70, 72, 77, 79–86, 101 contagion models, 13, 17, 70, 78–79, 81, 86–89, 139, 182, 241 cost and cost-effectiveness factors, 67, 71, 73, 76, 81–82, 91, 93–94, 97, 101, 102–109 economic factors and, general, 66, 67, 68, 69, 93, 103–104, 108, 115–137 equations, 73, 78, 80–81, 83–86, 89, 90–95, 97–100 historical perspectives, 17, 22, 27, 77–79, 101, 108, 118 organizational theory, 28, 67, 72, 75, 76, 77, 81, 86–89, 94, 107, 108–109 South Africa, 52 Spatial factors, see Geographic factors Stress, psychological, 184–185 Sub-Saharan Africa, 43, 52, 58, 147–148, 220–221, 254–261 see also specific countries Sweden, 8, 85–86, 102 T Taiwan, 43, 49, 50, 57 Television, 209, 210–213, 218–219, 224–225, 229, 230, 232 socioeconomic status and access, 211–212, 232

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Diffusion Processes and Fertility Transition: Selected Perspectives Thailand, 20, 49, 50, 52, 57, 154–157 Thresholds of resistance, 75, 93, 95–96, 100–101, 108 of use, 53–54 Time factors, 44–45, 47, 121 anthropological theory, 138, 143, 144, 145 birth intervals, 145, 147–148 lactation interruption, 59, 148, 243 communication technology, 191 cultural lag, 12, 74, 217, 244 economic theory, 52–53, 123 institutional constraints, 74 mass media, 210–211, 217–218, 234 social effects model, 26, 123 social indulgences, 57–58, 74, 76, 92 thresholds of diffusion, 53–54 Total fertility rates, vii, 118, 119 Tunisia, 52 U United Kingdom, 42 United Nations, 117 United States Agency for International Development, 222, 224 Urban areas, 2, 41, 45, 104, 120, 211, 232, 252 V Violent behaviors, model of collective, 79–81 W Women, see Gender factors World Fertility Survey, 27, 43, 48, 104, 244–245 family size desired, 58 sampling, 57 World Wide Web, see Internet Y Yemen, 48 Z Zambia, 225–226 Zimbabwe, 52