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Protecting People and Buildings from Terrorism: Technology Transfer for Blast-effects Mitigation E Selected Annotated Bibliography on High Explosive Blast Design and Analysis Compiled by William J. Hall Professor Emeritus of Civil Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Richard G. Little National Research Council The following list is a brief summary of literature that was reviewed in preparation for the workshop “Protecting People and Buildings from Bomb Damage,” held at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C., on November 28-30, 2000. It is not intended to be exhaustive. The reader should note that some of the references cited in documents included in this summary are restricted in distribution to “U.S. Government agencies and their contractors” and may not be readily available to the general public. Blast and Ballistic Loading of Structures, by P.D. Smith and J.G. Hetherington, published by Butterworth/Heinemann, 1994 [ISBN: 0-7506-2024-2]. This is a sound British book with good information on loading and modestly good material on resistance. A copy purchased recently through a book dealer cost $138 and took about 6 weeks to arrive. Blast Effects on Buildings, edited by G.C. Mays and P.D. Smith, published by Thomas Telford and available only through American Society of Civil Engineers, 1995 (Stock 2020) [ISBN: 0-7277-2030-9]. This, too, is a British book, but is not as comprehensive as item (1) above. The cost through ASCE is about $48 plus shipping (member cost is less). Concrete and Blast Effects, edited by William Bounds, American Concrete Institute, SP-175, 1998. Available from ACI only. An
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Protecting People and Buildings from Terrorism: Technology Transfer for Blast-effects Mitigation interesting and informative collection of contributions in the reinforced concrete field. The cost is about $52.50 plus shipping (less for members). One would normally want the latest version of the ACI-318 Specification, and the accompanying PCA interpretation [1000 pages], a total package available for about $120 to members. Nonmembers pay slightly more. Design of Blast Resistant Buildings in Petrochemical Facilities, Task Committee on Blast Resistant Design, Petrochemical Committee of the Energy Division, ASCE, 1997 (Stock 40265) [ISBN: 0-7844-0265-5]. A reasonably good publication on the subject. The cost from ASCE is about $40 plus shipping (less for members). Design of Structures to Resist Nuclear Weapons Effects, ASCE Manual No. 42, 1985 [ISBN: 0-87262-439-0]. Although the title contains the word “nuclear,” many of the relationships and plots shown are applicable to high explosives as well. The resistance material has application in many respects to the HE case as well. The price is not known; available from ASCE. Explosion Hazards and Evaluation by W.E. Baker, P.A. Cox, P.S. Westine, J.J. Kulesz, and R.A. Strelow, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., 1983. Out of print. A major book with a wealth of information; can be found in many libraries. Still cited in specific studies. An impressive reference. Protecting Buildings from Bomb Damage, National Research Council, 1995. This is the report of a committee charged with reviewing the knowledge base on blast-effects mitigation technology, assessing the applicability of the technology to civilian buildings, and recommending courses of action for technology transfer. It is available as a publication on-demand for $21.40 from the National Academy Press at <http://books.nap.edu/catalog/5021.html>. Structural Design for Physical Security, Task Committee under SEI/ASCE. Edited by E.J. Conrath, T. Krauthammer, K.A. Marchand, and P.F. Mlakar, 1999 (Stock 40457) [ISBN: 0-7844-0457-7]. A reference whose various chapters have a differing focus. The cost through ASCE is about $24 plus shipping (less for members). Structures to Resist the Effects of Accidental Explosion, Army TM 5-1300, 1990 Edition. This is the standard design manual for pro-
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Protecting People and Buildings from Terrorism: Technology Transfer for Blast-effects Mitigation tective construction and establishes design procedures and construction techniques, blast load parameters, and methods for calculating dynamic response. Structures Under Shock and Impact II, edited by P.S. Bulson, 1992, 688 p. [ISBN: 0-7277-1681-6]. This is the proceedings of a conference held in Portsmouth, England, in 1992. The papers are generally theoretical and are of only limited value to designers. The cost is £95 (British) from Thomas Telford Services Ltd. in London. The Embassy of the Future, National Research Council, 1986. The report of a committee charged with developing design criteria for the model embassy building. The recommendations address security-related issues in virtually every aspect of the planning, design, construction, and management of buildings at risk. It is out of print but can be read online at <http://books.nap.edu/catalog/9806.html>. The Protection of Federal Office Buildings Against Terrorism, National Research Council, 1988. A study undertaken at the request of a collection of federal agencies, its primary focus is how to improve the security of existing buildings subject to terrorist attack. It is out of print but can be read online at <http://books.nap.edu/catalog/9808.html>. The Structural Engineer’s Response to Explosion Damage, Institution of Structural Engineers, Great Britain, 1995. A short (20 pages) and good general introduction to damage from bombs. It is based largely on experience with the effects of terrorist vehicle-bombs in British cities. It is well illustrated but contains no analytical data. It is available from the Institution of Structural Engineers, London, for £25 (British). Lessons from the Oklahoma City Bombing: Defensive Design Techniques, by E.E. Hinman and David J. Hammond, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, ASCE Press, 1997. This report describes the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, the damage it caused, and the roles of those involved in the rescue and recovery operation. Of particular interest are a discussion of the investigation of progressive collapse, a comparison of the characteristics of seismic and blast events, and a description of basic defensive design principles. It also contains a bibliography
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Protecting People and Buildings from Terrorism: Technology Transfer for Blast-effects Mitigation that lists relevant military manuals, technical reports, papers, and texts. “Security,” by Roy Spillenkothen and Ronald J. Massa, in Facility Design and Management Handbook, edited by Eric Teicholz, McGraw-Hill, 2001. This brief overview focuses on bomb attacks and bomb threats. It contains a description of explosives and blast effects and some photos of the results of bombing attacks from around the world. It also presents a five-point bomb defense program that is useful as a defensive design primer. Explosives Engineering, by Paul W. Cooper, Wiley-VCH, 1996. This text presents the basic technologies used in the engineering of explosives and explosive systems. It covers the chemistry of explosives, energetics, shock waves, detonation, and initiation.
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