3
Chemical Contaminants and Their Sources

Passengers and crew have expressed concerns regarding exposure to various chemical contaminants in the aircraft cabin and have linked adverse health effects to specific potential exposures. Whether the exposures actually occur in the cabin is a critical question. Accordingly, this chapter addresses chemical contaminants, their sources, and potential exposure to them in aircraft. Unless otherwise noted, the term contaminants in this chapter refers to chemical contaminants. Biological agents are discussed in detail in Chapter 4.

Contaminants that originate outside the aircraft are discussed first, and then contaminants that originate inside the aircraft are addressed. Finally, contaminants that can result from the environmental control system (ECS), including the main engines and the auxiliary power unit (APU), are discussed.

CONTAMINANTS WITH EXTERNAL SOURCES

Ventilation air provided to the cabin by the ECS is drawn from ambient air around the aircraft. Any pollutants in this air can be introduced into the passenger cabin. During the gate-to-gate course of a flight, an aircraft generally encounters the following types of ambient air:

  • Ground-level air at the departure or arrival airport.

  • Urban air aloft in the air basin of the departure or arrival city.



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The Airliner Cabin Environment and the Health of Passengers and Crew 3 Chemical Contaminants and Their Sources Passengers and crew have expressed concerns regarding exposure to various chemical contaminants in the aircraft cabin and have linked adverse health effects to specific potential exposures. Whether the exposures actually occur in the cabin is a critical question. Accordingly, this chapter addresses chemical contaminants, their sources, and potential exposure to them in aircraft. Unless otherwise noted, the term contaminants in this chapter refers to chemical contaminants. Biological agents are discussed in detail in Chapter 4. Contaminants that originate outside the aircraft are discussed first, and then contaminants that originate inside the aircraft are addressed. Finally, contaminants that can result from the environmental control system (ECS), including the main engines and the auxiliary power unit (APU), are discussed. CONTAMINANTS WITH EXTERNAL SOURCES Ventilation air provided to the cabin by the ECS is drawn from ambient air around the aircraft. Any pollutants in this air can be introduced into the passenger cabin. During the gate-to-gate course of a flight, an aircraft generally encounters the following types of ambient air: Ground-level air at the departure or arrival airport. Urban air aloft in the air basin of the departure or arrival city.

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The Airliner Cabin Environment and the Health of Passengers and Crew Tropospheric air above the mixed surface layer. Air in the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere. Therefore, the ventilation supply air can be contaminated by background urban pollution and by emissions from local airport sources when the aircraft is on the ground. Urban air pollution is also encountered shortly after takeoff and before landing; however, these periods are usually small fractions of an entire flight. Finally, when flying in the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere, an aircraft can encounter high ozone (O3) concentrations. The issues noted are explored in the following sections. Ground-Level Pollution Most airports are near large metropolitan areas, where pollution can exceed health-based standards. For example, in 1999, 105 million U.S. residents lived in areas that were designated “nonattainment” with respect to at least one of the criteria pollutants (EPA 2000). On a population-weighted basis, the most serious problems were posed by O3, 90 million residents; particulate matter (PM), 30 million residents; and carbon monoxide (CO), 30 million residents. In addition to urban air pollution, substantial amounts of combustion-generated pollutants are emitted on the ground at airports by, for example, aircraft jet engines and diesel-powered service vehicles. Because emissions at airports are important contributors to urban and regional air pollution, modeling and measurement programs have been established to measure the emissions and the resulting concentrations (Moss and Segal 1994). Some of the information is summarized in the following paragraphs, but it does not appear to have been used to investigate the effect of emissions at airports on air quality in passenger cabins of aircraft. During the middle 1980s, the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS) was developed to assess air-quality effects of proposed airport development projects (Moss and Segal 1994). It was developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force and is supported as a Windows-based simulation tool.1 Specifically, the EDMS is 1   Background information on the EDMS tool is available at http://www.aee.faa.gov/aee-100/aee-120/edms/banner.htm where it can be purchased.

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The Airliner Cabin Environment and the Health of Passengers and Crew designed to emphasize the effect of emissions from aviation sources— especially aircraft, APUs, and ground support equipment—on air quality in the surrounding areas. It incorporates aircraft engine emission factors from a data bank maintained by the International Civil Aviation Organization. The effects of emissions on ambient air concentrations are predicted by means of dispersion algorithms validated by the Environmental Protection Agency. In 1998, FAA designated the EDMS as the required model to perform air-quality analyses for aviation-related air pollution. Examples of emission data available through the EDMS are presented in Table 3–1. Emission factors for three combustion conditions are provided for six species. The emission factors express the mass of a species emitted per mass of fuel burned. The last row in the table indicates typical fuel combustion rates of a single jet engine during idle and takeoff. The product of the combustion rate and the related emission factor is the mass emission rate for the species. For example, an idling jet engine would be estimated to emit CO as follows: (fuel at 0.205 kg/s)(CO at 25 g/kg of fuel)=CO at 5.1 g/s. The data in Table 3–1 show that emission factors for products of incomplete combustion (e.g., CO and hydrocarbons [HC]) are greatest when the jet engine is idling. However, nitrogen oxides, which are produced by high-temperature oxidation of nitrogen in combustion air, are emitted at the greatest rate during the high-power takeoff period. Sulfur oxide emissions are a consequence of sulfur in jet fuel and are independent of combustion conditions. Similarly, because carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor are the major products of combustion, they are emitted at rates that reflect the prevalence of carbon and hydrogen in the fuel rather than the combustion conditions. The data in Table 3–1 do not reveal what other products of incomplete combustion and unburned fuel constituents are emitted from jet engines. Such components would generally be emitted at lower mass rates than the products listed in the table. However, some have important adverse health effects as toxic air pollutants and may be of concern even at lower rates of emission. Recent studies have begun to explore the problem of exposure of ground personnel and passengers to some pollutants (e.g., volatile organic compounds [VOCs], polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and soot) at airports (Pleil et al. 2000; Childers et al. 2000). Because these studies are in their early stages, no conclusions can be drawn yet. With respect to pollutant exposure in passenger aircraft cabins at the airport, a key factor is the duration of time on board while the aircraft is on the ground. Flight attendants have higher potential exposures because they board

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The Airliner Cabin Environment and the Health of Passengers and Crew TABLE 3–1 Typical Emission Factors for Selected Gaseous Species From Jet Engine Operating Regimes   Emission Factor, g/kg Species Idle Takeoff Cruise Carbon dioxide 3,160 3,160 3,160 Water 1,230 1,230 1,230 Carbon monoxide 25 (10–65) <1 1–3.5 Hydrocarbons (as methane) 4 (0–12) <0.5 0.2–1.3 Nitrogen oxides (as nitrogen dioxide)— short haul 4.5 (3–6) 32 (20–65) 7.9–11.9 Nitrogen oxides (as nitrogen dioxide)— long haul 4.5 (3–6) 27 (10–53) 11.1–15.4 Sulfur oxides (as sulfur dioxide) 1.0 1.0 1.0 Fuel combustion ratea 0.205 kg/s 2.353 kg/s — aFuel combustion rate for a high-bypass GE (CF6–80) turbofan engine. Source: Data from Penner et al. (1999). before the passengers and deplane after them. Delays on the ground after boarding because of traffic, inclement weather, or equipment malfunction would also be associated with potentially greater exposures. Pollution During Ascent and Descent Ambient air pollution varies markedly with altitude. Almost all air pollution of anthropogenic origin has ground-level or low-altitude sources. The pollution is mixed through the lower troposphere by meteorological processes. Specifically, wind blowing over rough ground surfaces causes turbulent mixing, and heating of the earth’s surface by the sun induces vertical motion. The well-mixed layer of the lower troposphere typically extends from a few hundred to a few thousand meters above the earth’s surface. For short-lived pollutants that are characteristic of photochemical-smog constituents, the pollutant concentrations are highest in the well-mixed layer and decline steeply above it. Under ordinary flight circumstances, the duration of exposure of the aircraft to polluted air in the well-mixed layer is relatively brief, lasting for several

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The Airliner Cabin Environment and the Health of Passengers and Crew minutes after takeoff and for several minutes before landing. Sometimes, because of airport traffic, planes are placed in a holding pattern near the airport; in such cases, the duration of exposure to polluted urban air would be increased. Ozone During Cruise At altitudes no greater than a few thousand meters above the ground, the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to air pollution is small, at least with respect to pollutants that could affect cabin air quality. Accordingly, the primary ambient air pollutant of concern at cruise altitude is O3. In contrast with O3 formed from pollutant emissions near the earth’s surface, the O3 at altitude has natural sources. Oxygen molecules (O2) undergo photodissociation triggered by ultraviolet radiation from the sun. The oxygen atoms combine with other oxygen molecules to produce O3. O3 itself is reactive and decomposes fairly rapidly in the stratosphere either by photodissociation, by reaction with oxygen atoms, or by catalytic destruction (e.g., reactions with nitrogen oxides or chlorine oxides). The persistence and prevalence of stratospheric O3 is a consequence of the dynamic balance between rates of production and destruction (Seinfeld and Pandis 1998a). The following subsections review various aspects of O3: atmospheric concentrations that might be encountered on flights, reactivity and possible reactions of O3 with materials present in the passenger cabin, methods of controlling O3 concentrations in passenger aircraft cabins, and studies that have measured O3 concentrations in passenger aircraft cabins. Atmospheric Ozone Concentrations Figure 3–1 presents a summary of annual average O3 concentrations as a function of latitude and altitude over North America. The figure shows that at cruise altitudes (9,000–12,000 m [29,500–39,400 ft]), the average O3 concentration is much higher at high latitudes (greater than approximately 60°N) than at low latitudes (approximately 30°N). For example, the O3 concentration of 35×1011 molecules per cubic centimeter at 12,000 m (39,400 ft) at a latitude of 70°N corresponds to a partial pressure of 1.0×10−7 atm (1.0×10−4 mbar) assuming a temperature of 216.7 K as in the U.S. standard atmosphere (Bolz

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The Airliner Cabin Environment and the Health of Passengers and Crew FIGURE 3–1 Annual mean vertical distribution of O3 (1011 molecules per cubic centimeter) over North America. Shaded band represents range of common cruise altitudes. Range of latitudes for continental U.S. is approximately 24°–49°N (e.g., Miami, Florida, is at a latitude of 25.77°N, and Seattle, Washington, is at 47.61 °N). Source: Adapted from Wilcox et al. (1977). and Tuve 1973). Given a total air pressure of 0.19 atm (190 mbar) at this altitude, the O3 mole fraction would be 0.5 ppm.2 In contrast, the value of 5 ×1011 molecules per cubic centimeter at 9,000 m (29,500 ft) at a latitude of 30°N would correspond to only 0.05 ppm. In addition to the effects of latitude and altitude, O3 varies with season and fluctuates over relatively short periods because of meteorological processes that cause air exchange between the lower stratosphere and the upper troposphere (Seinfeld and Pandis 1998b). Thus, although Figure 3–1 illustrates overall annual trends, O3 concentrations at any altitude and latitude fluctuate substantially. In the lower troposphere, outdoor air contains only trace amounts of O3 2   The mole fraction is defined as the ratio of the number of moles of a constituent to the total number of moles of air in a given parcel. Therefore, a mole fraction of 1 ppm implies that there is 1 mole of O3 in each million moles of air.

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The Airliner Cabin Environment and the Health of Passengers and Crew (typically, 0.01–0.1 ppm). However, exposure to low concentrations of O3 has been associated with adverse health effects, including decreases in pulmonary function (e.g., decreases in lung capacity and increased airway resistance), inflammation of lung tissue, and increased mortality (see Chapter 5). Accordingly, various national and international government organizations have established upper limits on the concentration of O3 in the air that people breathe (see Chapter 1, Table 1–1). Specifically, the U.S. national ambient air-quality standards for O3 are 0.12 ppm for a 1-h duration and 0.08 ppm for an 8-h duration. Ozone Chemistry In addition to affecting human health directly, O3 can react with chemicals in aircraft to produce potentially irritating contaminants (Weschler and Shields 1997a). Products of indoor O3-alkene reactions include short-lived, highly reactive radicals, quasistable compounds (e.g., secondary ozonides), and stable aldehyde, ketones, and organic acids (see Table 3–2). The substances produced can be more irritating than their precursors (Wolkoff et al. 2000); therefore, preventing their formation and accumulation is another reason to limit O3 in the aircraft cabin. The relative likelihood of those reactions in an aircraft depends on whether they occur in the gas phase or on surfaces. For a gas-phase (homogeneous) reaction between O3 and an indoor pollutant to have important consequences, it must occur at a rate that is at least as great as the air-exchange rate (the rate at which the cabin air is replaced with outdoor air) (Weschler and Shields 2000). Outdoor-air exchange rates tend to be much greater in aircraft than in homes or commercial buildings. Specifically, exchange rates in aircraft range from 9.7 to 27.3 exchanges per hour (Hocking 1998), and in U.S. residences and office buildings from 0.2 to 2 exchanges per hour (Murray and Burmaster 1995; Persily 1989). The greater air-exchange rate in an aircraft limits the consequences of homogeneous O3 chemistry. However, the potentially high O3 concentrations in aircraft cabins compared with ordinary buildings somewhat offset the effect of faster air exchange. The compounds that are known to react with O3 at a rate competitive with aircraft air-exchange rates and that are most likely to be encountered in an aircraft environment include d-limonene, α-pinene, and isoprene. Sources of these compounds include solvents, cleaning fluids, and “synthetic” natural rubber materials (Budavari et al. 1989).

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The Airliner Cabin Environment and the Health of Passengers and Crew TABLE 3–2 Products of O3/Alkene Reactions Identified or Suspected in Indoor Settings Product Reference Hydroxyl radical Nazaroff and Cass 1986; Weschler and Shields 1996; Weschler and Shields 1997b Hydroperoxy and alkylperoxy radicals Nazaroff and Cass 1986; Weschler and Shields 1997b Stabilized Criegee biradicals Finlayson-Pitts and Pitts 1999; Tobias and Ziemann 2000; Tobias et al. 2000 Unidentified radical Clausen and Wolkoff 1997 Hydrogen peroxide Li 2001 Organic hydroperoxides Tobias and Ziemann 2000; Tobias et al. 2000 Peroxyhemiacetals Tobias and Ziemann 2000; Tobias et al. 2000 Ozonides Tobias and Ziemann 2000; Tobias et al. 2000; Morrison 1999 Formaldehyde Finlayson-Pitts and Pitts 1999 Other volatile aldehydes and ketones Finlayson-Pitts and Pitts 1999 Fine and ultrafine particles Weschler and Shields 1999; Wainman et al. 2000; Long et al. 2000 Condensed-phase constituents containing carbonyl, carboxylate, and/or hydroxyl functional groups Yu et al. 1998; Jang and Kamens 1999; Griffin et al. 1999; Virkkula et al. 1999; Glasius et al. 2000 Table 3–3 compares the half-lives of d-limonene, α-pinene, and isoprene at three O3 concentrations with their half-lives in the cabin at three air-exchange rates representative of those encountered on aircraft. The table indicates that the reactions of O3 with d-limonene and α-pinene are fast enough to compete with cabin air exchange under conditions of high cabin O3. Although the high ventilation rates on aircraft limit the time available for gas-phase (homogeneous) chemical reactions to occur, evaluating the importance of surface (heterogeneous) O3 reactions is less straightforward. Surfaces in the cabin encounter more O3 at high ventilation rates than at moderate ventilation rates. That situation promotes the O3 oxidation of chemicals associ-

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The Airliner Cabin Environment and the Health of Passengers and Crew TABLE 3–3 Comparison of Half-Lives of Selected Pollutants at Different O3 Concentrations and in Cabin Air at Different Air-Exchange Rates Pollutant 2nd Order Rate Constanta (ppb−1h−1) Pollutant Half-Life (h) at O3 Concentration (ppb) Pollutant Half-Life (h) in Cabin Air at Air-Exchange Rate (air changes/h) 100 200 300 7.5 10 12.5 d-Limonene 1.8×10−2 0.38 0.19 0.13 0.09 0.07 0.05 α-Pinene 7.6×10−3 0.92 0.46 0.31 0.09 0.07 0.05 Isoprene 1.1×10−3 6.4 3.2 2.1 0.09 0.07 0.05 aData from Mallard et al. (1998) ated with surfaces, especially chemicals with unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. Such reactions generate products with a range of volatilities. Volatile products desorb from the surface and enter the gas phase, in which they are diluted with ventilation air. Therefore, although the increased ventilation rates favor the formation of reaction products, the greater production rate is offset by a greater dilution rate. Higher ventilation rates can lead to the accumulation of semivolatile products of heterogeneous O3 chemistry on surfaces depending on their vapor pressure and rate of volatilization. In other words, the surfaces can become a reservoir for such products, which later volatilize from them. Volatilization can occur for extended periods after the initial production of the semivolatile species (Morrison and Nazaroff 1999); this means that semivolatile oxidation products can continue to be emitted from surfaces in the aircraft even when the O3 concentrations in the cabin are close to zero. Factors like a sudden change in relative humidity in the cabin could alter the rate of desorption of some compounds from surfaces. See Box 3–1 for further discussion and examples of heterogenous O3 reactions. Methods of Controlling Ozone in Aircraft Concern about O3 in aircraft was first expressed in the middle 1950s. In the early 1960s, Brabets and co-workers conducted a monitoring survey of O3 aboard commercial aircraft (Brabets et al. 1967). They measured real-time cabin O3 on 285 commercial jet flights. Little or no O3 was detected on flights

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The Airliner Cabin Environment and the Health of Passengers and Crew BOX 3–1 Examples of Heterogeneous O3 Reactions Consider a February flight between New York City and Chicago (about 40°N latitude). Many of the aircraft that fly this route are not equipped with O3 converters (M.Dechow, Airbus, personal communication, April 13, 2001; R. Johnson, Boeing, personal communication, April 25, 2001). Nonetheless, because of the high volume of traffic, a substantial fraction of flights on this route are assigned a cruise altitude of 10,700 m (35,100 ft). The average ambient O3 concentration at this altitude and latitude in February is approximately 260 ppb±200 ppb (Law et al. 2000). Accordingly, if one assumes that 30% of the O3 in the ventilation air is removed by indoor surfaces (see Box 3–2 for a discussion of retention ratio) and that 15% of the O3 removed by surfaces produces formaldehyde (a middle-range estimate derived from O3 interactions with recently painted latex surfaces, Reiss et al. 1995), then a central-tendency estimate of formaldehyde in cabin air as a consequence of O3-driven heterogeneous reactions could be calculated according to the following Equation: (260 ppb)(0.30)(0.15)=12 ppb. However, if one assumes that 50% of the O3 in the ventilation air is removed by indoor surfaces, on the basis of data on the 747–100 aircraft (Nastrom et al. 1980), and that 30% of the O3 removed by surfaces produces formaldehyde (an upper-bound estimate derived from O3 interactions with recently painted latex surfaces, Reiss et al. 1995), then a plausible upper-bound estimate of formaldehyde in cabin air could be calculated according to the following equation: (460 ppb)(0.50)(0.30)=69 ppb, where the ambient O3 concentration of 460 ppb is considered to be 1 standard deviation above the mean. To put these estimates into perspective, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists has established a threshold limit value ceiling of 300 ppb for formaldehyde. This value is recommended for occupational exposure of healthy workers. The California Air Resources Board has proposed indoor air-quality guidelines for formaldehyde with 100 ppb set as the “action” value and 50 ppb set as the “target” value. These guidelines apply to the general population. Next, consider a heterogeneous process that produces a semi-volatile product, cis-2-nonenal, on carpeted and upholstered surfaces in an aircraft. The odor

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The Airliner Cabin Environment and the Health of Passengers and Crew threshold for this compound is 2 ppt (Devos et al. 1990). At a ventilation rate of 10 air exchanges per hour, the emission rate of this compound from surfaces would have to be 20 ppt/h for its concentration to reach 2 ppt. Assume that the interior of an aircraft cabin has a volume of 200 m3 (slightly larger than an MD-80, Hocking 1998) and a surface area of 100 m2 covered with carpet and upholstery. The emission rate of cis-2-nonenal from these surfaces would have to be 0.23 μg m−2h−1 to achieve the odor threshold. As demonstrated by the studies of Morrison and Nazaroff (1999), such emission rates are easily achieved. They reported emissions of 2-nonenal of up to 200 μg m−2 h−1 from carpets exposed to O3 at 100 ppb. The examples provided show that the volatile products of heterogeneous reactions (e.g., formaldehyde) can reach meaningful, but not necessarily excessive, concentrations in cabin air. The semivolatile products of heterogeneous reactions can accumulate on surfaces, and the surface concentrations can eventually become large enough for the surface emission rates to exceed odor thresholds for some compounds. below the tropopause. At altitudes above the tropopause, the O3 was commonly above 0.1 ppm. The study found a maximal O3 concentration of 0.35– 0.40 ppm averaged over a 20-min period. Later, Bischof (1973) pointed out that the highest cabin O3 would be experienced during high-altitude, long-distance flights at high latitude in the spring. He measured O3 in the cabin air on 14 flights over polar areas. He reported concentrations greater than 0.1 ppm for 75% of the flight time and maximal concentrations of 0.4 ppm averaged over 4 h and 0.6 ppm averaged over 1 h. By the middle 1970s, concern about O3 in high-altitude flights had become widespread. Studies conducted in the late 1970s confirmed that high O3 concentrations could be encountered in the passenger cabin during flight (Nastrom et al. 1980). Furthermore, symptoms that have been associated with O3 exposure were more prevalent in flight attendants on long-range, high-altitude flights than on short-haul flights (Reed et al. 1980). The results of those studies and others precipitated regulatory action by FAA. Two regulations introduced in 1980 established O3 concentration limits for aircraft cabins (FAR 25.832 and FAR 121.578). The regulations are discussed in Chapter 1, and the regulatory language is in Appendix C. Airlines

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The Airliner Cabin Environment and the Health of Passengers and Crew could not locate any quantitative data on pesticide exposure of passengers or crew members. Incidents have occurred in which engine lubricating oils, hydraulic fluids, or their pyrolyzed products have entered the ECS and contaminated the cabin air. However, no available exposure data identify the contaminants present in cabin air during an air-quality incident. Controlled-pyrolysis experiments in the laboratory indicate that a large number of volatile and nonvolatile agents (e.g., TCP isomers) are released from engine lubricating oils and hydraulic fluids into the ambient air, where they can be measured at room temperature. However, the components released into the passenger cabin during air-quality incidents and their possible concentrations cannot be determined from the experiments. RECOMMENDATIONS A surveillance program should be developed and conducted to monitor cabin O3 on a representative number of flights and aircraft to determine compliance with existing federal aviation regulations for O3. The program should accurately establish temporal trends in O3 concentrations and determine the effectiveness of O3 control measures. Continuing monitoring should be conducted to ensure accurate characterization of O3 concentrations as new aircraft come on line, and aircraft equipment ages and is upgraded. Monitoring should be done with reliable and accurate instrumentation that is capable of making real-time O3 measurements. FAA should develop procedures for ensuring O3 converter performance. At a minimum, FAA should conduct spot checks to verify that O3 converters are operating properly, according to the Federal Register (Vol. 45, No. 14, January 21, 1980). Pesticide-exposure data should be collected to determine exposures of passengers and crew. Wipe samples of aircraft cabin, cockpit, and ventilation ducts should be taken and analyzed after air-quality incidents to identify the contaminants to which passengers and crew were exposed. Filters from the aircraft ventilation system should also be analyzed to identify contaminants that have collected on them. Because CO is most likely produced during air-quality incidents involving leaks of engine lubricating oils or hydraulic fluids in the ECS, it should be monitored in the ducts that introduce air into the cabin or cockpit.

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The Airliner Cabin Environment and the Health of Passengers and Crew More research should be conducted to determine products that might be generated when engine lubricating oils, hydraulic fluids, and deicing fluids are exposed to high temperatures that might be encountered in the ECS. REFERENCES Acohido, B. 2000. Alaska airlines jet flew repeatedly with fouled air. The Seattle Times. January 21, 2000. Anonymous. 1999. The plane truth about disinsection. Environ. Health Perspect. 107(8):A397–398. Arlidge, J., and T.Clark. 2001. British pilots overcome by fumes. The Observer. April 22, 2001. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers). 1999. ASHRAE Standard—Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. ANSI/ASHRAE 62–1999. American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA. ASHRAE/CSS (American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers/Consolidated Safety Services). 1999. Relate Air Quality and Other Factors to Symptoms Reported by Passengers and Crew on Commercial Transport Category Aircraft. Final Report. ASHRAE Research Project 957-RP. Results of Cooperative Research Between the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., and Consolidated Services, Inc. February 1999. Berlin, K., G.Johanson, and M.Leindberg. 1995. Hypersensitivity to 2-(2-butoxyethoxy) ethanol. Contact Dermatitis 32(1):54. Bischof, W. 1973. O3 measurements in jet airliner cabin air. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2(1):3–14. Black, D.R., R.A.Harley, S.V.Hering, and M.R.Stolzenburg. 2000. A new portable real-time O3 monitor. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34(14):3031–3040. Boeing. 1998. Removing smoke or fumes from the air conditioning system-trouble shooting. Pp. 101 in Boeing 737–300/400/500 Maintenance Manual. 21–00–01. Boeing Company. Nov. 15, 1998. Bolz, R.E., and G.L.Tuve, eds. 1973. Environmental and Bioengineering. Pp. 649–705 in CRC Handbook of Tables for Applied Engineering Science, 2nd Ed. Boca Raton : CRC. Borglum, B., and A.M.Hansen. 1994. A Survey of Washing and Cleaning Agents. AMI Repport #44. Copenhagen, (as cited in Wolkoff et al. 1998). Brabets, R.I., C.K.Hersh, and M.J.Klein. 1967. O3 measurement survey in commercial jet aircraft. J. Aircraft 4(1):59–64. Budavari, S., M.J.O’Neil, and A.Smith, eds. 1989. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals, 11th Ed. Rah way, NJ: Merck. Burge, P.S., and M.N.Richardson. 1994. Occupational asthma due to indirect exposure to lauryl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride used in a floor cleaner. Thorax 49(8):842–843.

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