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5 Fish Processing and Preservation Postharvest losses of fish reach 35 percent, nearly 25 million tons, of the worId's fishing catch. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has estimated that in some developing countries, postharvest losses of fish exceed those of any other commodity, often surpassing 50 percent of the landed catch. The losses are highest in the countries whose populations have the lowest protein intake. Reducing these losses could increase protein availability, improve nutritional status, and elirn~nate some of the need to import food. Postharvest losses of fish occur during the numerous steps from catch to market. The lack of appropriate methods to preserve the catch on board results in heavy losses. Additional losses occur in the period after docking and before marketing. During this period, exposure, inadequate processing, and insect infestation take their toll. The catch is further reduced by poor transport to market, unsatisfactory preservation, and further exposure during the marketing process. This chapter will examine fish processing and preservation be- tween catch and marketing. Some technologically simple preser- vation and processing methods, which could be adopted at the village level, are described. 142

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DISH PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION FIGURE 5.1 For best cooling, fish and ice should be packed in layers. PRIMARY PROCESSING- ON-BOARD HANDLING 143 Fresh fish are highly perishable and start to spoil as soon as they are landed. Concern for quality should begin on board the vessel. The first consideration should be to bring the fish aboard alive and in good condition. This is more likely, for example, if gill nets are set for six hours or less and trolling runs are two hours or less. i Fish should only come in contact with clean surfaces. It is mportant that bacterial contamination be kept low. Keeping the deck, hold, and storage boxes free of fish residues, dirt, and slime with the use of clean seawater and a scrubbing brush should be adequate for this purpose. Fish should be handled with care. Kicking, trampling, or dumping the fish will increase the rate of spoilage. For high quality, fish should be chilled an quickly as possible to 0C. Before fish are landed, hot decks should be cooled with clean seawater. Because high temperature is the single biggest cause of quality loss, fish should be moved promptly from the deck to coo} storage. It is most efficient to put the ice and fish together in a covered box or hold area. Fames or small pieces of ice provide the most effective cooling. I,arge irregular pieces can damage the fish. Fish and ice should be packed in alternate layers. Dumping ice on a pile of fish will not give good results (figure 5.1~.

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144 FISHERIES=CHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTIES The sanitary quality of the water used for producing the ice is also important. Both disease- and spoilage-causing microbes can survive in ice and contaminate the catch when the ice melts. Similarly, ice should not be reused. Once used for storing fish, it should not be recycled for cooling freshly caught fish. For many fisheries, however, it is not practical to use ice the vessel may be too small, or it may not be possible for the fisherman to recover the cost of ice through higher prices. Where the fisherman is at sea for only a short period, the use of ice may not be necessary. Delays in icing up to about six hours will still give reasonable quality for small pelagic fish, provided the fish are consumed promptly. Fish can be kept coo! by other methods. If possible, the fish can be kept in water in live wells until the boat lands (figure 5.2~. Water temperature is usually lower than ambient temperature. Fish kept shaded will be cooler than if they are exposed to the sun. Keeping the surface of the fish wet will help bring the temperature down (evaporation of the water absorbs heat from the fish). It is easier to keep the fish damp if materials such as wet seaweed, leaves, sacking, or sawdust are used as a light covering to increase the amount of water available for evaporation. Whether the fish are stowed with ice or without, overfilling of containers should be avoided to prevent crushing them (figure 5.3~. Coo! conditions and careful storage should continue through landing and marketing. Spoilage can never be prevented through chilling or cooling, but the cooler the fish are, the greater the reduction in bacterial and enzymatic degradation. For each 5C increment in storage temperature above 0C, there Is a significant reduction in shelf life. Fish that can be stored for two weeks at 0C may only last a day or two at 10C (figure 5.4~. In some areas, work has been done on ice-making machines that do not require gasoline, diesel oil, or electricity as an energy source. A biomass-fueled ice-making machine has been developed at the Asian Institute of Technology in Thailand. It requires little maintenance and has no moving parts. Almost any waste biomass can serve as the fuel (figure 5.5~. This ice maker uses an intermit- tent ammonia-water absorption cycle. These refrigeration systems produce their cooling effect through the heat absorbed when liquid ammonia Is converted to gaseous ammonia. As liquid ammonia vaporizes, heat is extracted from its surroundings. When this

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FISH PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION 145 FIGURE 5.2 On some boats, it may be possible to keep fish in live wells after they are caught. : ~ A: : a: :: ~~ ~~ ~ :- ~ - FIGURE 5.3 Overfilling containers and crushing of fish should be avoided.

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F~: :~ ~ ~ i, ~ -:. ~ ~~ ~ ~ i, :.:'::'' .~'~:~i':.~:', 1-~:~:ii-~ ~~'~:~ ~''~'jj:~,,jii '. - :'~ . it j ~~ ~i:: ~~.~ ~~ ~ -....: , ,~ .,j j j~.,j,.---- , .., -..... ~ :: :: ~~ i: :::::::: 'A ~:~ ~_ . , - , ,,,., Hi.,, ,~,',. ,~2~.,,. -,i FIGURE 5.4 Fish that can be stored for two weeks at OVC may only last a day or two at 10C before spoiling. change occurs in a closed container so that heat is extracted from water, ice is formed. As seen in figure 5.5, fuel ~ burned in the stove (A) to heat water, which is then circulated through the generator (B) that contains a mixture of ammonia and water. The ammonia is clis- tilled out of the water mixture, passes through the liquid seal (C), and is cooled to liquid ammonia in the condenser coil (D). The liquid ammonia is held in the ammonia receiver (E). To make ice, the liquid ammonia is released into the ice box (F) where it reverts to gaseous ammonia and converts containers of water to ice. The gaseous ammonia is then redissolved in water in the generator (B) and the cycle can start over. The complete cycle takes about 12 hours and produces about 225 kg of ice. The ice maker was built in Thailand at a cost of about US$3,000. A compact solar refrigeration system that uses the same tech- nology as the biomass-fueled ice-making machine has also been developed (figure 5.6~. In this case, the ammonia-water solution is heated in the pipes of a solar collector. SECONDARY PROCESSING The purpose of secondary processing is to convert the raw fish into a form that is still acceptable to the consumer and that

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FISH PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION //Uquld ~ seal // recolor G. Condenser coil ~1 ~ Blomass stove 147 Ferro-Cement water tank Ammonla receiver ~ ) ~ . ' Reabsorbor coil Water | Ice- - x FIGURE 5.5 This refrigerator can make 225 kg of ice in about 12 hours using biomass as fuel. It has been successfully field tested in Khan Yai, a remote rural island off southern Thailand. has a longer shelf life. However, to ensure a high-quality finished product, it is necessary to begin with a high-quality raw product. This, once again, accentuates the importance of primary processes. Silting Whether an end in itself, or as part of a smoking or drying process, salting has been used for thousands of years to preserve marine products. Salting has no adverse effect on the value of fish protein. Bacterial growth can be significantly retarded by the presence of sufficient quantities of common salt (sodium chloride). When fish is placed in a brine solution, the salt penetrates the fish, and water is extracted from the tissues by osmosis. At a salt concentration of 6-10 percent in the fish, the activity of most bacteria that cause spoilage will be inhibited. Since fish contain 7~80 percent water, the amount of brine used must be adjusted accordingly. The higher the salt concentration in the fish, the

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148 FISHERIES TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Condenser Trap Liquid Seal Or - l i= Freezing Unit FIGURE 5.6 A solar-powered icemaker has also been tested in Thailand. During the day the runts heat ~ used to produce liquid ammonia. At night the liquid ammonia is used to produce iceabout 40 kg in a 24-hour cycle. longer its storage life. Several methods of salting are cornrnonly used: dry salting, kench salting, brine salting, and pickle salting. Dry salting is the simplest method and is used primarily for fish with high water content. Granular salt is rubbed onto the outer and inner surfaces of the fish. Kench salting is a similar method that involves stacking split fish and layers of salt. The pickle or liquid formed is allowed to drain. In Brazil and India, sardines are preserved by pressing and salting. Avoiding air expo- sure is almost unpossible in these dry-salting processes. However, wrapping the product ~ a plastic bag reduces contact with the air. The wet-salting methods (brine and pickle) are recommended for tropical applications, especially with fatty fish. In brine salting, the entire or split fish is immersed in an aqueous salt solution. An 8~100 percent saturated brine solution (27~360 g of salt per liter of water) is preferred. For strongly cured fish, about 30 g of salt per 100 g of fish is needed. During processing, the brine solution will become diluted as water is drawn from the fish, and

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FIST PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION 149 additional salt will be needed. Plastic or wooden barrels can be used for brine treatment. The largest fish should be able to lie flat in the container. A wooden lid, which can be weighted, should be employed to ensure that the fish are submerged in the brine solution. Another wet cure is pickle salting. The fish are covered with salt and placed in layers with salt between the layers. Since a watertight container is used, the brine that is formed begins to cover the fish. If the fish are not completely covered within ~4 hours, saturated brine is added to cover them. A lid is placed over the fish to ensure that they are completely submerged in the liquid. At least 1~24 days are required for complete curing. Halophilic or salt-tolerant bacteria or molds may grow on in- completely dried salted fish or on dry salted fish that have become moist. However, pickle-cured fish are free of growths of halophiles, because these organisms are aerobic, and the brine of pickle-cured fish does not contain sufficient oxygen to support their growth. This oxygen-poor environment also reduces rancidity in fatty fish. Drylllg Much of the fish in rural areas of the tropics Is preserved by sun drying. While the cost of sun drying is low, there are significant losses due to spoilage, contamination by dust, and insect infestation, particularly when the fish are laid close to the ground. As a first step, raised structures would reduce contamination from some wastes and insects. Solar fish driers are simple and inexpensive and can eliminate much of the spoilage that occurs with traditional drying methods. These driers usually have a wood or bamboo-frame table, covered with plastic or glass to produce an enclosed chamber (figure 5.7~. The surface of the table can be covered with black plastic or paint to absorb the sun's heat. With openings at the top and bottom of the drier, air will be heated and flow around the fish. Fish exposed to this flow of heated air will rapidly lose moisture, reducing drying time by as much as half over open-air drying. Similar driers have been constructed in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Rwanda, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea. Solar driers have a number of advantages over traditional drying methods. They exclude rain, insects, animals, and dirt, and can produce

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150 ~~ =_~ ~ ~~ ~~ FICORE 5.? ~ Bangladesh, solar Ash drag are constructed hom baboon t~lne, ad plate 61~. (P E. Doe) temperatures blab enough to reduce the posslblUty of mold or bacteria spoilage. ^ Tilde moiety of designs far sole driers bag been developed. fit require only inexpensive readily willable materl~ls. In

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Oil Dnum Solar Dryer 1~ FISH PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION ~ \ 151 I/ ~ O plastic sheets / //~ j ~ cloth pad Cross-sectonal view FIGURE 5.8 A solar drier can also be made using an oil drum with a wooden frame and plastic sheeting. addition to plastic film and bamboo, discarded of} drums, scrap wood, thin metal sheeting, and even mud may be used. An oil drum solar drier has a creative design (figure 5.8~. The ends of the drum are removed and three rectangular ports are cut in the side. The drum is mounted on a wooden frame that includes air vents and access doors on both ends of the drum. Two sheets of clear plastic enclose the drum. These allow sunlight to heat the drum and, because of the air space between the two sheets, provide insulation to retain the heat. The outside of the drum is painted black to absorb solar radiation and the inside is painted white. Coo! air enters the base of this unit and is heated as it passes between the exterior of the drum and the plastic sheets. This heated air then enters the drum through the rectangular ports and passes over the trays of fish in the drum and out through the vents at the ends of the drier. wood bottom

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152 FISHERIES TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Mud Walls 1\ Inside of Walls Painted With Charcoal/Clay Mixture Alr Outlets I= =. Alr Dlstrlbujlon Holes / _ ~ ' ' '.~ Bamboo 'Pipes' \- -_ ~ \ it\ \\ \ \~ C\~ \\ \W \N N~ \\\ \~0 ~ ~ O ~ Alr Inlet hi_ FIGURE 5.9 In Tanzania, a solar drier is constructed from mud and bam- boo. When in use, fish are placed on the bamboo supports and transparent plastic covers the top. A mud wall solar drier has been developed in Tanzania. A rectangle of clay walls is constructed and, while the mud is wet, bamboo tube vents are inserted at 5~cm intervals from side wall to side wall (figure 5.9~. The bamboo tubes have a number of small holes so that air can flow into the drier. Fish trays are placed on top of the bamboo tubes and openings are cut into the top edge of the wall to exhaust the heated air. The inside walls and bottom of the drier are plastered with mud that is mixed with charcoal powder to absorb the heat. In addition, a layer of dark-colored stones can be placed in the bottom of the dryer to provide heat storage. The roof can be a transparent plastic sheet or film. A solar dome dryer (figure 5.10) has been developed and tested in Aden. Designed on the basis of results with solar tent driers, this large unit has a capacity of about 1 ton of prepared fish. In drying tests with local fish, moisture contents of 20~25 percent were oh tained. Typical sun-dried fish in this area had a moisture content of 2~35 percent. Use of the solar dome dryer also significantly reduced contamination from insects, animals, and dust. A solar collector can also be attached to a cabinet drier (figure 5.11~. The solar plate collector uses black coated, corrugated metal to absorb the radiation. This is covered by a double panel of glass

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158 FISHERIES TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTIES ~1 AIR ENTRANCE PASSAGE BOTTOM OPEN \ TOP CLOS;FD g tar 8 a: A: LU _ U) ~ en. HEAT GUARD #2 ~ F G.l. CORRUGATED ~ I Y o 3 o A Z To tar - 0.20 TIC ~ / 1 / C HEAT GUARD #1 GA 26 Gl.SHT. , HOOD BASE AIR EXIT PASSAGE / BOTTOM CLOSED TOP OPEN \ 5~: :1:\ \< . ~ Oi ad: t U' _ C, Wo 1 1 o l , , , - SOOT CAP DAMPER .:.- .; he' o FIGURE 5.13 In this drier, the smoke from the burning fuel is diverted outside the unit while the heat passes up through the trays of fish.

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FISH PROCESSING AND PRESERVAHON . - ~ -.-. ~ .... ?,. :: . ~ :; :. art ~ . ~: :: :: ~ ~ Aft- ~ ..~.-. :~: . ~ ?~-.~: C":~ 159 :~? FIGURE 5.14 A traditional mud oven for smoking fish is difficult to operate and has a limited capacity. (B. Brownell and J. Lopez) Sto~ how . . . . . . . . . . FIGURE 5.15 An oven made from two steel drums is more durable than one made of mud but is equally laborious to operate. (B. Brownell and J. Lopez)

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160 FISHERIES TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES TOP VIEW trays stacked ~en) ;~ perforated ~~~~ " ~ sheet metal _, smoke spreader smoke box (steel drum) SIDE VIEW jeet metal or corrugated zinc or asbesto- cement roofing sheets FIGURE 5.16 The Ivory Coast kiln is simple and efficient but the construc- tion materials are costly. COMBUSTION CHAMBER FOR SMOKING \ EXHAUST (GJ. SHEET) \ ~ n 7~ \ \ COMBUSTION CHAMBER FOR DRYING METAL SHEET (REMOVABLE, USED ONLY FOR DRYING) (REMOVED WHEN USED FOR SMOKING) EXHAUST VALVE HOLLOW BLOCKS CHAMBER :F KINDLING EXHAUST BACK VIEW \ VALVE (G.l. SHEET) METAL SHEET DOOR FIGURE 5.17 In the Philippines, an agrowaste fish drier and smoker has been developed. This unit is made of hollow concrete blocks with sheet metal doors and chimneys.

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FISH PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION 161 brown paper, or banana leaves. The fish should be resmoked every 2 months to eliminate mold, bacteria, and insect larvae. Fish Paste Products Kamaboko is a popular fish paste product made from surimi, a washed minced fish common in Japan since the fifteenth cen- tury. Codfish, croaker, lizard fish, and conger eel have the texture necessary to produce surimi. To prepare surimi, the head and viscera are removed, the fish are cleaned in water, and the bones and skin are removed. Surimi, the minced meat, Is then washed repeatedly with cold fresh water to produce a bland and functional meat. The surimi is then chopped in a cutter for 4 minutes while 30 g of salt per kg of fish are added. Next, potato or wheat starch is added (100-250 g per kg of fish), and the mixture is chopped for 10 minutes longer. Sugar (3() 100 g per kg of meat) and chopped vegetables may be added before a final 5 minutes of chopping. The resulting paste is then shaped and cooked in a variety of ways. Kamaboko is produced by shaping the surimi paste into half cylinders, like loaves of bread, on wooden blocks. The loaves are steamed at 85-90C for 40 minutes and then cooled for 2 hours in air. The products are packaged in cellophane and have a shelf life of 1 week in warm weather. If the surimi paste is shaped into semicircles or squares, steamed at 90-95C for several minutes, and cooled on a grid, a product called happen Is obtained. The surimi may also be shaped into a ball or cake and fried to produce salsuma-age. If it is shaped into a tube and steamed, it is called chikuwa. In Taiwan, fish balls are made from fish paste. Shark, lizard fish, pike, eel, and marlin are the main species used. It is shaped by hand, made into balls, and then steamed. One advantage of these fish paste products is that the raw materials are not recognizable. Therefore, low-priced fish or fresh species that are disliked can be utilized. Boiled Fish Products Boiling fish in water, as a method of short-term preservation, is accepted throughout Southeast Asia. This method may have

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162 FISHERIES TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES FIGURE 5.18 The Chorkor smoker has a number of advantages including low construction cost, long life, large capacity, and ease of operation. In the top photo, a mason places a top layer of clay mud on a new oven.

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FISH PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION 163 applications in other tropical areas where high humidity and rain- fall during part of the year make drying difficult. Boiling could allow distribution of the catch to market with low-cost equipment and facilities. Boiling denatures the fish proteins and also eliminates many of the bacteria present. Therefore, such treatment may extend the shelf life of the product. Salt may also be added before, during, or after boiling to help retard spoilage. In Indonesia, boiled fish products are known as pin4;ang. Many species, including shark, may be used. The fish are gutted, washed, and arranged in clay pots or metal bowls, with alternating layers of salt and fish. A little water is added, and the fish are heated until nearly cooked. Most of the liquid is drained, more salt is added, and the fish are heated again until no free water remains. The top of the pot is sealed with leaves or paper. Shelf life may range from a few days to 3 months, depending on the amount of salt and the container seal. Fermented Products In many Southeast Asian villages, rice and fish are the primary foods. Since both are relatively bland, a long tradition of preparing more flavorful products through fermentation of fish and shrimp has developed. Since these products are generally derived through hydrolysis in the presence of high salt concentrations, they have good keeping qualities. The nutritive value of the fish or shrimp is retained and the processes are relatively simple. In some cases, the fish or shrimp retain their original form, but usually the end product is a liquid or paste. Bagoong is a Philippine fermented fish or shrimp paste. Bagoong na isda is the fish derivative, dark gray in color with a cheeselike flavor. Bagoong na alamang is a thick paste obtained through shrimp fermentation. Although pieces of the shrimp re- main, the characteristic aroma of raw shrimp is no longer de- tectable. Bagoong na isda is prepared by mixing three parts of fish with one part of salt and enclosing the mixture in a fermentation jar. With occasional stirring to keep the salt concentration uniform, the fermentation ~ complete in 6~90 days. The corresponding

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164 FISHERIES TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES shrimp product is made in the same fashion, but the fermentation is complete in only 3 days. Nuoc-mam is a clear brown liquid, rich in salt and soluble nitrogen compounds, with a distinctive odor and flavor. It is produced in most coastal regions of Vietnam from small sea fish. More recently, production of nuoc-mam from freshwater fish has increased greatly. Traditionally, the fish are kneaded, salted, and placed in earthenware pots that are tightly sealed and buried in the ground for several months. When opened, the supernatant liquid (nuoc-mam) is carefully decanted. Except for histidine, nuoc-mam contains good concentrations of the nine essential amino acids. Although not a good source of the B vitamins, it is a valuable supplement to cereal diets through its content of other vitamins and minerals. Similar methods are used to produce nam-pia in Thailand and palls in the Philippines. In the Philippines, fermented rice and fish mixtures known as burgs are popular. These are prepared by mixing cooked rice and fish or shrimp with salt and allowing the mixture to ferment for up to 7 days. The products become acidic due to the action of lactic acid bacteria and have a shelf life of about 2 weeks at ambient temperatures (figure 5.19~. ~ Korea, the fermented fish product sik-hae is widely con- sumed. Flat fish are eviscerated, sliced, salted overnight, and then mixed with cooked millet, red pepper powder, and garlic and fer- mented at 20C for 2-3 weeks. The pH of sik-hae drops quickly to 4.5 due to the organic acids formed from the millet by the lacto- bacillus. After fermentation, the product can be stored for up to 1 month at 5C. Indonesian [rassi is a paste made from small shrimp. Inter- estingly, its production starts on shipboard. When caught, the shrimp are finked on deck with about 10 percent salt. On shore, the mixture is respread and more salt is added. After exposure to air and sun for 1-3 days, the moisture content drops to about 50 percent and the foul odor disappears. The mass is kneaded and redried and red colorants are added. Trassi has excellent keeping qualities. It is often mixed with Spanish peppers to give a spicy product called sambal, which is consumed with rice. The Colombo method of curing is used in South Kanara, India, to ferment mack- erel. The fresh fish are gutted, washed, and rubbed with salt (ratio Ike. After the fish are put in cement tanks, the fruit of a small evergreen tree Garcinia cambogia, similar to tamarind, is added

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FISH PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION 165 FIGURE 5.19 Cooked rice and fish are fermented to produce buxom, a popular food in the Philippines. (A. Reilly)

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166 FISHERIES TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (8 kg of fruit per ton of fish). The fish are left for 2-4 months in the brine that forms and are exported in wooden barrels. They can be consumed for up to a year. In Aden, the same mackerel species is similarly salted in ce- ment tanks, but the brine is allowed to escape. The fish are sewn into palm leaf bags and exported to East Africa. Fish silage has also been studied as a source of protein for poul- try and swine. The starting materials are fish-processing wastes or trash fish and a carbohydrate such as starch or molasses. These are inoculated with a lactic acid bacteria and fermented for 4~7 days before being fed to pigs or chickens. RESEARCH NEEDS Ice is desirable for preserving fish and would enjoy more widespread application if its manufacture were economically fea- sible. A simple, efficient, and economical technology for ice pro- duction using nonpetroleum fuels needs to be developed. Alterna- tively, more efficient and economical driers and smokers must be developed for application in Third World coastal villages. There is a continuing need for research in the development of new fish products that are acceptable to the local consumers and that will increase storage life. Underutilized fish, especially shrimp by-catch, are obvious targets for product development. Country-specific studies are needed to provide more precise information on Tosses during the various stages from capture to marketing. This information could help reduce postharvest losses while increasing protein consumption without increasing the catch. SELECTED READINGS Barile, L. E., A. D. Milla, A. Reilly, and A. Villadsen. 1985. Spoilage Patterns of Mackerel {`Ra~trelli~cr fau~hni Matsui), part 2. Mesophilic and Psychrophilic Spoilage. ASEAN Food Journal 1~3~121-126. Brenudorfer, B., L. Kennedy, C. O. O. Bateman, D. S. Trim, G. C. Mrema, and C. Wereko-Brobby. 1985. Solar Dryers Their Role in Po~t-Harve~t Proceeding. Commonwealth Science Council, London, U.K. Brownell, B., G. Nerquaye-Tetteh, J. Lopez, and A. Thompson. 1983. A Practical Gtude to Improved Fish Smoking in Scat Africa. UNICEF, New York, USA. Carter, P. M., R. G. Poulter, D. E. Sil~rerside, and G. R. Ames. 1985. Recent developments in the utilization of meat and fish wastes in the tropics. Industry and En~ror~ment. 8~4~15-18.

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FISH PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION 167 Caurie, M., T.-C. Lee, and C. O. Chichester. 1977. Underutilization of Food Technology Resulting in Losses of Available Food in West Africa. International Center for Marine Resource Development, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, USA. Chinnappa, J. C. V., and P. L. Kok. 1986. A continuous cycle ice plant. In Active Solar Cooling Systems, James Cook University of Northern Queensland, Townsville, Australia. Exell, R. H. B., S. Kornsakoo, S. Oeapipatanakul, and S. Chanchacna. 1984. A Village-Sizc Solar Refrigerator. Research Report 172, AIT, Bangkok, Thailand. FAO. 1981. Tic Prevention of Low in Cured Fuh Fisheries Technical Paper 219, FAO, Rome, Italy. FAO. 1986. Fish Processing in Africa. FAO Fish Report 329. FAO, Rome, Italy. Hall, G. M., D. Keeble, D. A. Ledward, and R. A. Lawrie. 1984. Silage from tropical fish, part 1. Proteolysis. Journal of Food Technology 20:561-572. Hall, G. M., D. A. Ledward, and R. A. Lawrie. 1984. Silage from tropical fish, part 2. Undigested fraction. Journal of Food Tcchrzology 20:573-580. Hassan, T. E., and J. L. Heath. 1986. Biological fermentation of fish waste for potential use in animal and poultry feeds. Agricultural Wastes 15:1-15. James, D. 1983. The Production and Storage of Dried Fuh Fisheries Report 279, FAO, Rome, Italy. Kweku, O.-A. 1977. Paticrru of Production, Utilization arid Consumption. of Fish Along the Coast of Ghana. Food Research Institute, CSIR, Accra, Ghana. Lee, C. M. 1986. Surimi manufacturing and fabrication of surimi-based products. Food Technology 40~3~:115-124. Lee, C. H., T. S. Cho, J. W. Kang, and H. C. Yang. 1983. Studies on the sik-hae fermentation made by Bat fish. Korean Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biocr~ginecnng 11~1~:53. McVeigh, J. C. 1984. Solar Cooling and Rcfrige ratio n. UNESCO, Paris, France. Reddy, T. A., and G. Y. Saunier. 1986. Manufacture of ice using biomass energy. Paper presented at the symposium, Economics of Small Renew- able Energy Systems for Developing Countries, 2-6 June 1986, Sophia Antipolis, France. (Available from AIT, P.O. Box 2754, Bangkok 10501, Thailand). Reilly, A., and L. E. Barile (eds.) 1986. Cured Fuh Production in the liop- ic`. Proceedings of a Workshop 14-25 April 1986 at University of the Philippines in the Visayas, Quezon City, Philippines. Sachithananthan, K., D. S. Trim, and C. I. Speirs. 1985. A Solar Dome Dryer for Drying Fish FII:FTA/85/35. FAO, Rome, Italy. Steinkraus, Keith H. (ed). 1983. Har~dboolc of Indigenous Fermented Foods. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, USA. Tahy, C., C. Vogel, and P. Christiansen. 1982. Prescrvirlg Food by Drying. Peace Corps, Washington, D.C. USA. Tropical Products Institute. 1982. Fuh Handling, Preservation and Processing in the Topics: Parts 1 ~ 2. TPI, 56/62 Gray's Inn Road, London, U.K. Tropical Development and Research Institute. 1986. Sardines preserving by pressing. Intcrnatior~al Agricultural Dcvelopmer~t 6~5~:17.

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168 FISHERIES TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES RESEARCH CONTACTS Afos Ltd., Manor Estate, Anlaby, Hull, England HU10 6RL. Brace Research Institute, Faculty of Engineering, MacDonald College of McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec H9X lCO, Canada (T. A. Lawand). B. Brownell and J. Lopez, P.O. Box 154, Whitianga, New Zealand. Centro de Investigaciones de la Industria Pesquera (CITIP), Edificio No. 54, Cindad Camilo Cienfuegos, Habana del Este, Cindad de la Habana, Cuba. Department of Fish Processing Technology, College of Fisheries, University of the Philippines in the Visayas, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines (L. Santos). Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- nology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02136, USA (E. R. Pariser). Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island 02881, USA (T. C. Lee and Chong Lee). Directorate of Fisheries, Ministry of E`isheries and Livestock, Dacca, Bangla- desh (K. A. Haque). Division of Energy Technology, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 2754, Bangkok 10501, Thailand (T. A. Reddy). Fisheries Research, Department of Primary Industry, P.O. Box 101, Kavieng, New Ireland Province, Papua New Guinea (A.H. Richards). Fishery Products Laboratory, Department of Fisheries, P.O. Box 699, Haifa 31006, Israel Institute for Food Science and Technology, College of Ocean and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA (J. Liston). Institute of Food Technology, B. P. 2765, Hann Dakar, Senegal (M. Sarr). International Center for Living Aquatic Resource Management, P.O. Box 1501, M.C.C. Makati, Metro Manila, Philippines (D. Pauly). MacAlister Elliot and Partners Ltd., 565 High Street, Lymington, Hampshire S04 9AH, England Ministry of Human Settlements, Aquamarine Program Management Office, 6th Floor, Hanston Bldg., Ortigas, Pasig, Metro Manila, Philippines (F.A. Flores). Postharvest Institute for Perishables, College of Agriculture, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83843, USA. South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme, P.O. Box 1184, M.C.C., Makati, Metro Manila, Philippines. D. B. Thomson, The Farmhouse, Baberton Main~, Edinburgh 14, Scotland, U.K. Tropical Development and Research Institute, 56/62 Gray's Inn Road, Lon- don WC1X 8LU, England (A. Reilly). University of Tasmania, Box 252C, GPO, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia 7001 (P. E. Doe). Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd., 2500 Shingai, Iwata-shi, Shizuoka-ken, Japan (T. E`ukamachi).