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2 Fishing Methods and Gear Traditional fishing arts have been developed over the years to adapt to local conditions (such as the type of coast and nearshore area), the species of fish desired, and the size targeted. The most successful fishing methods of a given region are those that have stood the test of time. This chapter will describe some of the traditional fishing meth- ods used around the world and consider their advantages and dis- advantages. Each method shows a continuum of development with evolution resulting from modernizing factors. Traditional fishing arts in various stages of modernization could be transferred and applied in new regions with the technical level appropriate for the local conditions. The adaptation of new technologies could help small-scale fisheries increase their catch. They could compete more effectively with industrial fisheries or exploit a previously unex- ploited resource. Energy-efficient technologies are recommended where possible. The introduction of any new fishing technology always de- mands good national management and regulation. Vessels must also be matched with new methods or gear. As gear becomes more complex, it may require upgrading of vessels in size, power, and design. The site specificity of fishing arts should always be considered. 49

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50 FISHERIES TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOP~G COUNTMES PASSIVE GEAR Passive gear is stationary. It does not have to be dragged or towed to capture fish. Long lines, traps, weirs, and gill nets effectively fish by themselves. The catch is recovered by simply removing the gear from the water after a period of time. Hooks and Ames The simplest form of fishing requires only a line and a baited hook. The line is cast into the water where the fish supposedly are, the fish take the bait and are hauled in. Lines may be cast by ingenious methods. In Oceania, the line is wound around a stone and thrown from the shore into the water. Hook and line fishing is inexpensive and easy. Almost any boat or shoreline can be used and the catch is live and of high quality. A wide variety of sizes and types of hooks and lures can be used, allowing very selective fishing. Tuna fishing with poles and lines continues to be widely practiced and productive. In spite of these advantages, line fishing is labor intensive. A very limited number of fish can be captured per line and usually some type of bait is required. Line-fishing methods can be made more efficient if multiple hooks on a line are used (figure 2.1~. Often these are attached in pairs to form balanced lines. A single, branched rod, used in Lake Tanganyika fisheries, also allows one person to fish an increased number of lines and hooks. However, the number of lines that one person can hold is limited. Set lines The use of set lines can increase the number of lines deployed without requiring the constant presence of the fisherman. Such lines must be checked regularly because predators will devour any fish caught if the lines are not promptly recovered. Fishing rods can be set untended in shallow waters or on the beach. ~ the ocean, set lines may be suspended from the surface. [ongimes I,onglines are unwatched lines with multiple hooks. They can be used at the surface, suspended in the water columnm, or fixed

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FISHING METHODS AND GEAR 4~ ~1 - 1, ~ ... ,. r~ W-1 Ace. - ~~ . ~ FIGURE 2.1 Multiple-baited hooks on a line can increase the catch. 51 on or near the bottom (figure 2.2~. Japanese and Italian fishermen use sailing rafts to tow longlines away from their boats. Longlines may be set from the beach by means of sailing rafts or kites if winds are favorable. Surface longlines are used to capture tuna, shark, and billfish. Subsurface and bottom-set longlines are used to catch cod, grouper, snapper, drum, bream, halibut, haddock, hake, and Catfish.

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52 FISHERIES TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES - . _ ~ N __ - ~~ .. ., _ ~ _~ I lTi'T-llll! - ,_ P 1 '-it ~ . AL T. Am. A_ FIGURE 2.2 Long lines of baited hooks can be deployed at the surface, midwater, at the bottom, or vertically in the water column. An alternative to bottom-set longlines ~ a vertical fish stick (figure 2.3~. This device is hung from a surface float just off the bottom. It has rigid branches to allow multiple hooks without snagging. Fishermen can use local materials to fabricate this gear. Hook-and-line fishing methods offer a number of advantages. They involve low capital and energy investments and labor-inten- sive operations. Species and size can be selected by the position of the hook in the water column, the hook size, and by the bait type

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FISHING METHODS AND GEAR _, 3 5' ~3 l \ \ 53 V`,, ~ PVC Pipe +' ~ Lead Weight FIGURE 2.3 This 2.5-m rod has 5 rigid cross branches, each with 2 hooks. Adjacent cross branches are set at about 90 to each other for greater spacing between hooks. (Atlantic and Gulf Fishing Supply Corp.)

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54 FISHERIES TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES and size. Small-scale fisheries using only open boats can easily adopt hook-and-line methods. At the same time, the hooks generally require bait (which may be expensive) and baiting is time consurn~ng. It may be difficult to store longlines and their catch on a small vessel. Moreover, a high degree of skill is involved in deploying and retrieving longlines, unless expensive mechanized equipment is used. Modernization in longline fisheries generally involves the mech- anization of hauling. If available, hydraulic or electrical drives offer better control, lower maintenance, and variable power. Simple mechanical hauling techniques can increase the range and depth of hand-line fishing. Manually operated reels can be constructed of local materials and used to reduce the effort needed to handle gear. A vehicle wheel (from a bicycle or automombile) can be fitted with a handle and mounted on the boat to create a simple roller, which facilitates handling lines or nets. A simple wooden hand hauler can also be constructed (figure 2.4~. The placement, design ant] dimensions of the hauler can vary according to the size and length of line, and the type and depth of fishing. Maps and Pots Maps are devices that fish or shellfish enter in search of shelter or food, or because an obstacle is placed in the fish's normal path of migration. They are designed so that getting out is harder than getting in. Traditional techniques employing traps and pots have developed in aD regions of the world to catch demersal species. Their design and operation match the specific conditions and be- havior of fish in a given area. Hence the importance of local knowledge in design and placement cannot be overemphasized. Maps and pots can be quite specifically tailored to species and size. They may be constructed of local materials, generally at Tow cost, and usually require no bait. An additional advantage of this fishing method is the high quality of the live catch. At the same time, their construction requires skill and knowI- edge of fishing conditions. Maps and pots are bulky and can occupy considerable space on a vessel. Handling is difficult, and manual hauling is arduous. A major disadvantage of this technique is the high loss of gear due to theft, storm damage, degradation of materials, and the inability to locate the gear once it is deployed.

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FISHING METHODS AND GEAR At/ 55 . By/. Can i, Y. ~ /( ~; ~ / /N ~ FIGURE 2.4 A simple wooden handreel can ease landing larger fish. (D. C. Cook) A lost trap may continue to operate ("ghost fishing"), depleting marine resources. Traps increasingly tend to be constructed of more durable materials, such as wire mesh and vinyI-ciad wire netting, instead of traditional woods and fibers. Electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic hauling techniques are also modernizing this fishing system. There are thousands of trap designs throughout the world, many of which would be innovative outside of their region of use.

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56 FISHERIES TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES / - 1 i 40m l 1 1 , 255 --~i a 300 _'. ~ FIGURE 2.5 Cuban fishermen cover their crab traps with mangrove branches to provide a shady enticement. These traps are set in long rows, about 40 m apart. The use of mangrove boughs to cover trap roofs provides attractive shade and shelter for some species. Cuban cylindrical or box crab traps, made of wire mesh, are lined with boughs and are set out in long rows of 5~60 traps, about 40 m apart (figure 2.5~. The traps are checked every 2 or 3 days. The "curiosity trap, used throughout the Caribbean, has curved surfaces, which seem to attract snapper, grouper, jack, and other bottom species. The trap is fished in sandy bottoms near reefs or rocks in water depths between 3 and 80 m and requires no

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FISHING METHODS AND GEAR 57 bait. Made of wire netting, it has two funnel entries, which turn down. Since the trap measures approximately 2 x 3 x 1 m and has large funnel openings (11 x 20 cm), fish weighing up to 12 kg can enter. It is usually pulled and cleared every third day. Variations of Caribbean Island fish traps incorporate exterior funnels leading into a cone-shaped interior funnel that is often turned down to prevent escape. These traps are generally rect- angular, although they may be cylindrical or have pointed roofs. Traditionally, cane fibers were used in construction (figure 2.6), but marine mesh and galvanized chicken wire are increasingly pop- ular. Fishermen report that such traps catch lobster as well as all types of bottom fish, such as snapper, grouper, and blue runner. A trash can is used in Hawaii to catch deepwater shrimp. The bottom is cut out of a ligation trash can and is replaced by a 3/4-inch nylon fishnet funnel, which is the only entry. A part of the lid is also cut out and replaced with a 1/2-inch wire mesh. This trap is light, economical, and obtains profitable catches. Whippy bough traps catch fish by the elastic power of a bent bough. When the fish takes the bait, it releases a holding mech- anism, which causes the rod to straighten and the catch to be suspended out of the water, clear of predators. This automatic fishing line is common in Java, Thailand, and Europe. Octopus pots are artificial caves where these animals find refuge, but are free to leave at will. Earthenware pots with handles (Italy, Malta) or without handles (Japan, Korea), are strung singly or on longlines with up to 100 pieces. If the pots are hauled neck down, the octopuses will remain in their shelter. Sections of PVC pipe are used by the Japanese as octopus pots. Two sections of pipe, 15 cm in diameter and 75 cm long, are attached side by side. A 5-cm cement plug bisects each section. This pot offers four dens for octopus and lies flat on the bottom (figure 2.7~. An equally effective pot can be made from old tires. The tires arecut in thirds, the rims laced together with wire, and a circular wooden disk nailed to one end (figure 2.8~. Tire pots have been fished extensively in Venezuela. These pots as well as the PVC pipe pots are fished from bottom longlines at intervals of about 8 m. Buoys mark both ends of the line so that the gear can be easily located and recovered after a fishing period of several days. Timed-float releases or pop-ups can also be attached to the traps (figure 2.9~. The pop-ups corrode in saltwater after a given

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58 FISHERIES TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Of':'. ;~ FIGURE 2.6 Traditional and commercial fish traps operate side by side in the Caribbean. The entry to the woven trap is at the top center (D. Suman). The metal trap is large enough (2.0 X 1.1 X 0.6 m) to hold 180 kg of fish. A section of one of its panels is biodegradable to avoid "ghost fishingn if the trap is lost. number of days, and the increased rope length permits the pre- viously submerged float to ascend to the surface. This allows concealed traps and reduces poaching, theft, or cut-off floats. Corrosion is always a serious problem with metal traps. One solution is to use marine mesh, which combines the strength of

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FISHING METHODS AND GEAR 1 _ ~ _ _ bolt | rod ~ concrete Hi ~i" . it' _ my, OK ~ \ ~ \ 59 \= longline ~ snap :1 ~ \ \ ~ /gangion / \ ~ > my FIGURE 2.7 Sections of plastic pipe can be used as octopus pots. This design creates four chambers, each about 15 x 35 cm, by dividing two pipes in half with a concrete plug. / 1 ~ ~ 1 ~ car tire ~ cut in thirds I \ lac ing nail / - ' wood disk ~ Gang ion J FIGURE 2.8 For use as octopus pots, discarded tires can be cut in thirds, laced into cylinders, and closed at one end with a wooden disc.

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74 FISHERIES TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES i. ,_ ~: FIGURE 2.22 Smaller beach seines can be a two-person operation, useful for catching bait fish. _ - ~ ~r~ FIGURE 2.23 Large boat seines are used by anchoring one end of the seine, sailing in a circle back to the anchor point, and hauling the net. The purse seine can be set with one or two boats and must be fished quickly. Those that are operated with two boats are called ring nets. Light may also be used to attract the target species. Purse seines are highly mobile and can capture whole large

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FISHING METHODS AND GEAR 75 in, FIGURE 2.24 Small boat seines can be handled by two fishermen without mechanization. schools of pelagic species that gill nets and beach seines could not. Hauling can be done manually, and the catch is live. Nevertheless, purse seines are costly and require highly skilled operators. Purse seining with two boats (ring netting) enables small, artisanal fishing craft to take advantage of this method (figure 2.26~. Bottom Bawling Trawls may be towed behind one or two boats or, in shallow waters, even dragged by a fisherman (figure 2.27~. Trawl nets generally have a cone-shaped body with a wide opening between two wings. In bottom trawling, the net is towed on the bottom in order to capture shrimp and demersal fish. Pair Trawling Pair trawling uses two small boats to tow the trawl, one on

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76 FISHERIES TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES FIGURE 2.25 Purse seines have a line at their bottom edge that can be drawn to close off the base of the net. (FAO photo) each side (figure 2.28~. Having two boats keeps the trawl net open. This method also permits boats with small (5 hp) engines to trawl and allows small-scale fishermen to compete with larger trawlers. With the same total horsepower, more fish can be caught with pair trawling than if a single boat tows the net. Whereas the noise from a single engine directly in front of the trawl net can frighten fish from the path of the net, the noise from two engines on either side of the opening will scare some fish towards the center, directly into the net. Pair trawling has limitations. Two boats must cooperate and work as a team. The fishing area is limited to smooth bottoms. Even in ideal areas, the net can be damaged or lost on a wreck or a rock.

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FISHING METHODS AND GEAR 77 _~_ ~~ T_ ~ . _ ~ ~ ~ FIGURE 2.26 Purse seining with two boats (ring netting) allows smaller boats to use this technique. The value of the catch must be at least equal to the sum of the value of the two vessels' catches if they fished alone. If the boats have engines stronger than 8 hp. they are strong enough to tow sweeplines. These lines are made of heavy rope and are towed on the bottom in front of the wings of the trawl net. They serve to scare fish from a wider area into the net. Single Boat Trawling A single vessel with an adequate power source may also tow a trawl, but otter boards or a beam are required to open the net horizontally. Beam trawls are the simplest trawls and are used primarily to capture Catfish and shrimp (figure 2.29~. The horizontal opening for these nets is provided by a beam made of wood or metal that can measure up to 10 m in length. Smaller beans, about 2 m in length, are used with rowboats in Portuguese rivers. Although small beam trawls might be used by artisanal fishermen, they obviously lack the fishing spread of larger trawls, which require power and mechanization. Otter trawling is a more complex fishing system. These trawI- ing nets have their horizontal opening maintained by the shearing

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78 FISHERIES TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES .. C - ~ ,_\ FIGURE 2.27 Trawl nets can be pulled by one or two boats or, in shallow water, dragged by a fisherman. action of the heavy otter boards (figure 2.30~. Demersal or pelagic species can be captured by this fishing method in shallow waters. Otter trawling gives fishermen broad access to marine re- sources. But the high costs, large energy requirements, and the specialized skills required to maintain the equipment and use it effectively make it feasible for small-scale fisheries only under very favorable conditions. The minimum power for an otter trawling boat is 30-40 hp with a relatively high gear ratio flow propeller rpm) and a large propeller diameter to provide maximum towing power. Electronic Equipment Much marine electronic equipment was initially developed for military use in communications, navigation, and underwater re- connaissance during World War IT. Postwar growth in the elec- tronics industry resulted in lower costs for this type of equipment and ocean-going fishermen began to use it. As costs decreased

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FISHING METHODS AND GEAR 79 ...,.-- j ~ {--air Al Q~ l /~-Q- Q `~-- Q ~ ~ ~ _ my ..k . ~ g FIGURE 2.28 Boats without enough power to trawl singly can often trawl in padre. Using two boats allows a wider area to be covered and makes it easier to keep the net open.

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80 FISHERIES TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES me. Sinker Square \ ~ Cod end (shrimp) Warp: 200300 m Bridle: each 50 m Wing: Height 90 270 cm, length 60-70 m Bag: Length 10 m @~ Be\a~ Bridled _ Bag Cod end (for shrimp: 5 m) Cod end (for debris: 2 m) Beam: Length 10 m Float: 1~17 floats made of Styrofoam Cod end (debris) FIGURE 2.29 Beam trawling is accomplished from a single boat. An 8- to 10-m pole (beam) is used to keep the net open horizontally to capture catfish or shrimp. even more, the market has broadened to include smaller-scale commercial and sport fishermen. Although probably still beyond the reach of most individual fishermen in developing countries, some of this equipment may be cost effective for shared use in villages or cooperatives. Perhaps the most useful for nearshore fishermen would be aids to fish location. The simplest of these is an electronic ther- mometer. Seawater temperature can markedly affect fish-feeding habits, and in thermally stratified water, species may concentrate

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FISHING METHODS AND GEAR Tow line 81 Float line _Float Swivel /Otter board Sinker line FIGURE 2.30 In otter trawling, two Bat (otter) boards are used at either end of the net to hold it open. at depths based on temperature. In addition to the value of know- ing absolute temperature and its relationship to fish feeding and depth, changes in temperature are also important. Seawater tem- perature can remain constant over a wide area; a change of a degree or even less can indicate an upwelling or current boundary where fish may cluster. Stem thermometers that rely on liquid or metal expansion and contraction for temperature readings are not responsive enough for this application. Simple digital readout electronic thermometers can display instantaneous temperature changes of tenths of a degree. These are available for less than $100. Another valuable device Is an electronic depth recorder. These can indicate water depth, bottom formations, and fish locations. Boats need travel no farther than is necessary to detect fish. Nets and lines can be set and hauled with greater efficiency. Rocky bottoms potentially damaging to trawls can be detected. The results of a properly used depth recorder can be dramatic and should have a direct and visible economic benefit. To use this equipment, a fisherman must install a transducer on the hull. A method of installing this unit on temporary brackets has been developed to allow its ready transfer from vessel to vessel. Costs for these echo sounders range from $200 to $600. Although excellent Loran and satellite electronic navigation aids are available, their costs are prohibitive. Where appropriate radio stations operate, inexpensive radio direction finders can be used to plot positions and plan courses.

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82 FISHERIES TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES [IMITATIONS The introduction of fishing gear and methods to an area, whether these methods are technically new or simply new to a given region, is not without dangers. Gear and methods are highly site specific. The fishing arts that have developed in a region are usually the best suited for the species and size desired, the given marine conditions, and the community's economy and structure. New methods may often be inappropriate and rejected by local fishermen. Introduced gear may be too costly for the local economy to sustain. What appears to be economical to an outside observer is often unpossibly expensive for the fishing community unless increased credit is made available. Innovations should be tested on a pilot scale to ensure that they are economically viable. Many coastal waters are overfished. Upgrading the gear and making it more efficient increases the risk of depleting the fish- ing stocks even more. Therefore, the introduction of any new gear or methods must be accompanied by proper monitoring and protection of the marine resources. More sophisticated fishing arts may require training for the fishermen. At the same time, modifications in gear may necessi- tate simultaneous improvements in the design, power, and size of fishing vessels. Almost all marine electronic equipment requires 12 volts DC to operate, although current requirements are fairly low, less than 10 amps. Because most of this equipment is not designed for user repair, maintenance is a more severe problem. The most practical approach is to minimize the number of different models in use. RESEARCH NEEDS A persistent concern when introducing new gear or methods is that of exceeding sustainable fishing yields, thereby making the fisherman's lot temporarily better but ultimately worse. Research on simple methods for determining fish populations and their regenerative capacity could be very valuable. New gear or methods could then be used without fear of overfishing. In situations where specific gear is potentially valuable but too costly for a fishing community, adaptive research on local manufacture using local materials could be an alternative.

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FISHING METHODS AND GEAR 83 More information on combinations of attraction and capture methods is needed. The use of fish-aggregating devices (chapter 3) or light in conjunction with complementary traps or nets could improve the catch of specific sizes or species. SELECTED READINGS Andreev, N. N. 1962. Handbook of Fi~hir~g Gcar and its Rigging. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, Israel. Atlantic and Gulf Fishing Supply Corporation. 1986. Catalog. Miami, Florida, USA. Ben-Yami, M. 1976. Fishing with Light. Fishing News Books Ltd., Surrey, U.K. Ben-Yami, M. 1980. Lana Fishing wilk Pole and Line. Fishing News Books Ltd., Surrey, U.K. Brabant, J. C., and C. Nedelec. 1983. Bottom Trawls for Small-Scalc Fiskir~g: Adaptation for Pair Trawling. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 189, FAO, Rome, Italy. Crossland, J., and R. Grandperrin. 1980. The Development of Deep Bottom Fishing in the Topical Pacific. South Pacific Commission, Post Box D5, Noumea, New Caledonia. Doyi, B. A. 1984. Cataloguc of Small-Scalc Fishing Gcar of Ghana. Research and Utilization Branch, Fisheries Department, Tema, Ghana. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 1980. Otter Board Dc~gr~ and Pcrformanec. FAO Fishing Manuals, Rome, Italy. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1980. Echo Sounding and Sonar for Fishing. Fishing News Books Ltd., Surrey, U.K. Garner, John. 1980. How to MaJcc and Set Nets or The Technology of Netting. Fishing News Books Ltd., Surrey, U.K. Hoey, J. J., and J. G. Casey. 1986. Shark longline fisheries: gear and production characteristics. Pp. 169-186 in: Proceedings of the 87th Annual Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute. F. Williams (ed.~. GCFI, Miami, Florida, USA. Kumagai, S., T. Bagarinao, and A. Unggui. 1980. A study on the milk- fish fry fishing gears in Panay Island, Philippines. Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Technical Report No. 6, Tigbanan, Iloilo, Philippines. Laitin, J. 1986. The case for longlining. Oceans 19~1~:35-38. Lorimer, P. D. 1984. Net Mending and Patching. SAFIS Extension Manual Se- ries No. 14., 956 Rama IV Road, Olympia Building, 4th floor, Bangkok, Thailand. Motoh, H., 1980. Fishing gear for prawn and shrimp used in the Philippines today. Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Technical Report No. 5, Tigbanan, Iloilo, Philippines. Mutton, B. 1983. Engineerfr~g Applications: 2; Hauling Devices for Small Fishing Crap. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 229, Rome, Italy. Nedelec, C. 1982. Defirutior' arid Classificatory of Fi~hir~g Gcar Categories. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 222, Rome, Italy.

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84 FISHERIES TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Noel, H. S., and M. Ben-Yami. 1980. Pair Trawling untie Small Boats, FAO Training Series 1, Rome, Italy. Olsen, D. A., A. E. Dammann, and D. Neal. 1974. A vertical longline for red snapper fishing. Marine Fishery Review 36~1~:7-9. Rosman, I. 1980. F"hir~g with Bottom Gillrzet`, FAO Training Series 3, Rome, Italy. Stewart, L. 1982. An Introduction to Gill Not Con~tr?~c~on arid Design. Barnsta- ble County Cooperative Extension Service, Barnstable, Massachusetts, USA. South Pacific Commission, 1984. Notes on the construction of the FAO wooden fishing reel, Handbook No. 25 (1984), Noumea, New Caledonia. Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute, 1972. Fishing Gear arid Method`, Keelung, Taiwan. Thomson, D. B. 1980. The Seine Net Its Origin, Evolution arid Use. Fishing News Books Ltd., Surrey, U.K. van Brandt, A. 1984. Fish Catching Methods of the World. Fishing News Books, Ltd. Surrey, U.K. ~ Voss, G. L. 1985. Octopus fishery information leaflet, Gulf and South Atlantic Fisheries Development Foundation, Miami, Florida, USA. Yamaha Motor Company, Ltd. 1986. Fishery Journal (Compo~itcJ. Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd., Japan. Yamelu, T. 1985. Traditional fishing technology of Bwaiyowa Fergnssen Island, Milne Bay Province. Appropriate Technology 12~3~:10-12. RESEARCH CONTACTS Atlantic and Gulf Fishing Supply Corp., 591 Southwest 8th Street, Miami, Florida 33130. 1; Fisheries Technology Service, Department of Fisheries, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy (S. Drew, J. Fyson). Fisheries Department, South Pacific Commission, Post Box D5, Noumea, New Caledonia. Gulf and South Atlantic Fisheries Development Foundation, University of Miami, Florida, 33149 (G. L. Voss). International Center for Marine Resource Development, 126 Woodward Hall, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, 02881 USA. M. Ben-Yami, 2, Dekel St. K. Tiveon 30000, Israel Southeast Asian Fisheries Information Service, 956 Rama IV Road, Olympia Building, 4th Floor, Bangkok 10500, Thailand. Yamaha Motor Co., 3380-67 Mukojima Arai-cho, Hamana-gun, Shizooka-ken 431-03 Japan (T. Fukamachi). Rich Electronics, Inc., 3300 Northwest 21st Street, Miami, Florida 33142 USA (R. Rich, Jr.~.