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The Role of Environmental NGOs

Russian Challenges American Lessons

Proceedings of a Workshop

Committee on Improving the Effectiveness of Environmental Nongovernmental Organizations in Russia

Office for Central Europe and Eurasia Development, Security, and Cooperation Policy and Global Affairs

National Research Council

In cooperation with the Russian Academy of Sciences

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
2001



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The Role of Environmental NGOs: Russian Challenges American Lessons - Proceedings of a Workshop The Role of Environmental NGOs Russian Challenges American Lessons Proceedings of a Workshop Committee on Improving the Effectiveness of Environmental Nongovernmental Organizations in Russia Office for Central Europe and Eurasia Development, Security, and Cooperation Policy and Global Affairs National Research Council In cooperation with the Russian Academy of Sciences NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 2001

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The Role of Environmental NGOs: Russian Challenges American Lessons - Proceedings of a Workshop NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-07618-8 A limited number of copies of this report are available from: Development, Security, and Cooperation National Research Council, FO 2060 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 Tel: (202) 334–2644 Additional copies of this report are available for sale from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285 Washington, D.C. 20055 Tel: (800) 624–6242 or (202) 334–3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The Role of Environmental NGOs: Russian Challenges American Lessons - Proceedings of a Workshop THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm.A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I.Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. Wm.A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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The Role of Environmental NGOs: Russian Challenges American Lessons - Proceedings of a Workshop WORKSHOP COMMITTEES NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL COMMITTEE John H.Gibbons (Chair) Fellow National Academy of Engineering Mark E.Schaefer President Association for Biodiversity Information Debra Knopman Senior Engineer RAND Corporation RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Nikolai P.Laverov Vice President Russian Academy of Sciences Natalia P.Tarasova Chair, Committee on Liaison with NGOs Russian Academy of Sciences Yuri K.Shiyan Foreign Relations Department Russian Academy of Sciences STAFF Glenn E.Schweitzer Project Director National Research Council A.Chelsea Sharber Program Specialist National Research Council

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The Role of Environmental NGOs: Russian Challenges American Lessons - Proceedings of a Workshop Kelly L.Robbins Senior Program Officer National Research Council Rhonda O.Busing Editorial Consultant Salt Box Graphics

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The Role of Environmental NGOs: Russian Challenges American Lessons - Proceedings of a Workshop CONTENTS     Preface   xi     Opening Remarks N.P.Tarasova   1     Introductory Remarks M.E.Schaefer   3     History of the Development of Ecological Nongovernmental Organizations in Russia I.A.Haliy   5     Development of a Leading Environmental NGO: Thirty Years of Experience T.J.Graff   11     Role of Nongovernmental Organizations in the Chemical Disarmament Process S.I.Baranovsky   19     Organizing in Directly Impacted Communities: The SOCM Story M.E.O’Connell   27     Global Forest Watch: An Example of International Partnership with Russian NGOs and Scientists L.Laestadius   33     Role of International Relations in the Development of Ecological Nongovernmental Organizations in Russia: The International Association Siberian Accord M.N.Korotkevich   39     Public Dissemination of Information to Support Safe Management of Chemicals J.S.Young   53

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The Role of Environmental NGOs: Russian Challenges American Lessons - Proceedings of a Workshop     Internet Use by Nongovernmental Organizations: Tendencies and Prospects L.A.Kokhanova   59     Emerging Tools for Developing, Integrating, and Distributing Conservation Information M.E.Schaefer   73     Experience in Coping with Effects of Radiation Accidents: Lessons for Society L.A.Bolshov, I.I.Linge, I.L.Abalkina   77     Role of Greenpeace of Russia and Other Public Organizations in the Conservation of Russian Forests O.V.Smirnova   91     Problems of Waste Management in the Moscow Region A.G.Ishkov   99     Emissions of Pollutants into the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere of the Kuznetsk Coal Basin G.I.Gritsko   109     Russian Far East Environmental Problems V.M.Buznik   125     Dynamics of Radioactive Pollution of Primorye Territory and the Northern Shelf of the Sea of Japan V.N.Soifer, V.A.Gorychev, A.F.Sergeev   133     Society Should Be Protected from the Metal Threat S.L.Davydova   137     Influence of American NGOs on Environmental Decisions and Policies: Evolution over Three Decades M.E.Kraft   141     Collaboration of Regional Government Bodies with Environmental Public Organizations: The Example of Tomsk Oblast V.V.Galtsova, R.T.Tukhvatulin   161     Interaction of Nongovernmental Organizations and Regional Authorities in Solving Problems of the Lake Baikal Region V.V.Dryukker   169     Public Participation in Environmentally Sound Decision-making: Legal Aspects V.L.Mishchenko   179

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The Role of Environmental NGOs: Russian Challenges American Lessons - Proceedings of a Workshop     Highlights of Presentations G.E.Schweitzer   191     Closing Remarks N.P.Tarasova   195 Appendix A:   Scientific Council on Ecological Problems and Emergency Events A.P.Belousova   197 Appendix B:   Presentations   201

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The Role of Environmental NGOs: Russian Challenges American Lessons - Proceedings of a Workshop PREFACE In June 1999, the Presidents of the National Academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Sciences agreed that a joint project on the role of environmental nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) would be of considerable interest to both Russian and American specialists in the environmental field. Staffs of the two academies subsequently agreed that an interacademy workshop on this topic would be a good first step in carrying out such a project. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has been very interested in the activities of NGOs in Russia and therefore provided most of the funds required for the workshop. The National Research Council, using private funds, provided the remainder of the required financial support. A workshop was held in Moscow in November 2000. Ten Americans and 80 Russians attended the workshop. This report includes the papers that were presented. The papers highlight many important issues concerning the role of a sampling of different types of environment NGOs in the two countries. Since there are hundreds of NGOs of many types operating in all regions of the two countries, a comprehensive overview of their activities was not feasible. However, the workshop was a good first step in identifying many of the successes of NGOs and the difficulties that they often face. Of course the role of NGOs in Russia in contributing to environmental improvement is greatly impeded by the current economic crisis in the country. Also, environmental NGOs are much more mature in the United States with several decades of experience in influencing environmental policies at the federal, state, and local levels. Nevertheless, there are common concerns and common approaches that provided a basis for useful interactions among the specialists from the two countries. The workshop was held shortly after the Russian Government decided to reorganize the federal structure of the country and incorporated the previously independent State Committee for Environmental Protection into the Ministry of Natural Resources. This decision was met with mixed reactions in Russia and abroad. The workshop did not address this organizational issue, which became a lively topic for informal discussions during the breaks at the workshop. Also, prior to the workshop the Russian Academy of Sciences established a special standing panel of its Scientific Council on Ecological Problems and

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The Role of Environmental NGOs: Russian Challenges American Lessons - Proceedings of a Workshop Emergency Events to strengthen liaison with NGOs. This organizational step enhanced the interest of many Russian specialists in the topics that were discussed. I would like to express my appreciation to the other members of the National Research Council Committee on Improving the Effectiveness of Environmental Nongovernmental Organizations in Russia who assisted in the selection of the western participants and reviewed the proceedings of the workshop. Also, we are indebted to the members of the organizing committee of the Russian Academy of Sciences who selected the Russian participants and made the necessary arrangements in Moscow for a successful workshop. —John H.Gibbons