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Also, public organizations now frequently apply to the courts, especially in the cases of contested land ownership, illegal forest cutting, and construction of parking places. Building of dachas by Russian businessmen in green zones has led to struggles with local NGOs in Novosibirsk, Vladimir, and Cherepovets.

NGOs actively cooperate with legislative authorities at all levels. Two Moscow organizations of lawyers and ecologists, Ecojuris and Ecology and Justice, participate in development of federal laws and actively assist eco-activists at the regional level.

Yet another significant form of participation in the process of decisions is referendums, which deal with ecological problems that cannot be solved by other methods, such as attempts to construct new nuclear power stations.

The interrelationships of NGOs with industrial enterprises have revealed pollution impacts which require penal actions, the use of new technologies, and the monitoring by the government. NGOs together with environmental protection bodies establish norms of permissible releases from industrial enterprises, which should be regularly revised. But, industrial enterprises still remain one of the main opponents of the ecological movement.

Current Russian authorities are searching for ways to end the economic crisis, which is accompanied by constant political instability. Complex actions in the environmental protection sphere are impossible without a base in the political system. The base will consist of such foundation stones as public consciousness, self-organizing ability, level of knowledge, skills and experience of administrative structures, and readiness of the federal government to create a State strategy in the sphere of ecology. It will also depend on the theoretical and practical bases of interaction between society and nature.

A new stage of eco-political process development has begun. It is characterized by the orientation of federal authorities at the end of the economic crisis with the help of maximum use of natural resources. The first steps of the government to restructure federal management bodies (elimination of two main environmental protection organizations) reflect this orientation.

In these conditions, it seems probable that the activity of the ecological movement will be important to determine the level of State activity in environmental protection.



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