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1Mazmanian, Daniel A. and Michael E.Kraft, eds. 1999. Toward Sustainable Communities: Transition and Transformations in Environmental Policy: Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press.

2In this paper environmental NGOs are assumed to be those nongovernmental organizations that are supportive of environmental protection policies. These include environmental groups such as the Sierra Club, Natural Resources Defense Council, Environmental Defense, and the National Wildlife Federation as well as many public health groups such as the American Lung Association. There are other NGOs that typically oppose such policies or seek to limit their impact, such as those associated with the Wise Use Movement (largely in the West), property rights groups, and some state and local governments. Industry and trade associations also tend to be skeptical of governmental intervention. For a description of the “environmental opposition” in the United States, see Switzer, Jacqueline Vaughn . 1997. Green Backlash: The History and Politics of Environmental Opposition in the U.S. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

3Wenner, Lettie M. 1982. The Environmental Decade in Court. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press and O’Leary, Rosemary. 1993. Environmental Change: Federal Courts and the EPA Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

4For a thoughtful overview of environmental groups and their organizational and political challenges, see Shaiko, Ronald G. 1999. Voices and Echoes for the Environment: Public Interest Representation in the 1990s and Beyond. New York: Columbia University Press. Group strategies and tactics, particularly regarding communication, are addressed in Kraft, Michael E. and Dianna Wuertz. 1996. Environmental Advocacy in the Corridors of Government, in The Symbolic Earth, James G.Cantrill and Christine L.Oravec, eds. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky.

5See Dunlap, Riley E. and Angela G.Mertig, eds. 1992. American Environmentalism: The U.S. Environmental Movement, 1970–1990. Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis.

6See Bosso, Christopher J. Environmental Groups and the New Political Landscape, in Environmental Policy. Vig and Kraft, eds.

7This history can be found in much greater detail in Vig, Norman J. and Michael E.Kraft, eds. 2000. Environmental Policy from the 1970s to 2000: An Overview, in Environmental Policy, 4th ed., Washington, DC: CQ Press. See also Kraft, Michael E. 2001. Environmental Policy and Politics, 2nd ed. New York: Addison Wesley Longman. A slightly different version of this history can be found in Kraft, Michael E. 2000. U.S. Environmental Policy and Politics: From the 1960s to the 1990s, Journal of Policy History 12, 1: pp. 17–42. For two detailed historical accounts of the last five decades of environmental policy and the role of environmental science and environmental groups, see Hays, Samuel P. 2000. A History of Environmental Politics Since 1945. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, and Lacey, Michael J. ed. 1989. Government and Environmental Politics: Essays on Historical Developments Since World War II. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

8See Freeman III, A.Myrick Economics, Incentives, and Environmental Regulation. And Andrews, Richard N.L. Risk-Based Decisionmaking, in Environmental Policy, 4th ed., Vig and Kraft, eds.

9See, for example, Sexton, Ken, Alfred A.Marcus, K.William Easter, and Timothy D. Burkhardt, eds. 1999. Better Environmental Decisions: Strategies for Governments, Businesses, and Communities . Washington, DC: Island Press, and Daniel Press. And Mazmanian, Daniel A.

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