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  1. The Constitution of the Russian Federation shall be used directly.

    Part 1 of Article 15 of the Constitution states that the Constitution “shall have supreme legal force and direct effect and shall be applicable on the entire territory of the Russian Federation.”

  2. Gaps, contradictions, and common and controversial points in the laws shall be interpreted in favor of the citizens.

    The heart of this principle is Article 2 and Article 18 of the Constitution. The first one proclaims: “Man and his rights and freedom shall be the supreme value.” The second one says: “Human and civil rights and freedoms shall have direct force. They shall determine the meaning, content, and implementation of laws, they shall determine the functioning of legislative and executive authority and of local government, and they shall be guaranteed by law.”

  3. Environmental rights (like any other human and civil rights) shall be fundamental and of high priority. State and local government bodies shall only be able to establish procedural norms for their execution and protection. This principle is based on the following articles of the Constitution:

  • Part 1 of Article 3: “The bearer of sovereignty and the sole source of power in the Russian Federation shall be its people of many nationalities.”

  • Part 2 of Article 17: “Basic human rights and freedoms shall be inalienable and shall be enjoyed by everyone from birth.”

  • The above cited Article 18.

  1. The following principle is based on the very same articles of the Constitution: Opinions of the citizens on any activity to be carried out or on any object to be located on the territory where they live shall prevail and shall be disputed only in accordance with legal procedures.

  2. The right to participate in decision-making shall be a part of the human right to a favorable environment, that, in turn, shall be an inalienable element of the right to life. This principle emerges from the following complex of articles of the Constitution and other laws:

  • Article 42: “Everyone shall have the right to a favorable environment…”

  • Part 1 of Article 20: “Everyone shall have the right to life.”

  • Part 1 of Article 9: “Land and other natural resources shall be utilized and protected in the Russian Federation as the basis of life and activity of the people living on the concerned territory.”

  • Article 92 of the Law “On Protection of the Natural Environment”: “Everyone shall have the right to life in the most favorable environmental conditions.”



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