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TABLE 4–1 Chemical and Physical Properties

CAS number

7782–50–5

Molecular formula

Cl2

Molecular weight

70.9

Color

Greenish-yellow

Odor

Suffocating

Odor threshold

0.2–0.4 ppm

Boiling point

–34.05°C

Melting point

–101.00°C

Density (water=1)

1.5649 at boiling point

Vapor density

1.4085 at 20°C

Solubility

Water, alkalies

Conversion factors

25°C, 1 atm

1 ppm=2.9 mg/m3

1 mg/m3=0.34 ppm

Abbreviations: CAS, Chemical Abstract Service. Source: Budavari (1989)

adverse health effects or degradation in crew performance following short-term exposures to chlorine. This chapter presents the available toxicity information on chlorine and the subcommittee’s evaluation of the Navy’s proposed SEALs.

Chlorine is used in the manufacture of many products, as a bleaching compound for residential and commercial use, and as a biocide for municipal water and waste treatment (i.e., purifying and disinfecting water, detinning and dezincing iron) (Budavari 1989). It also was used as chemical-warfare agent in World War I (Withers and Lees 1987).

TOXICOKINETIC CONSIDERATIONS

There are few toxicokinetic studies of chlorine inhalation, and there have been no toxicokinetic studies on dermal exposure to chlorine.

Absorption

Absorption of chlorine is primarily via the upper respiratory tract. Chlorine is moderately soluble and, thereby, considered a Category I gas (EPA 1994). Because of its reactivity at localized sites, chlorine is not readily absorbed systemi-



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