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F Biographical Sketches JOHN A. SWETS is chief scientist of Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. After receiving degrees from the University of Michigan, he was assistant and associate professor of psychology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and then senior vice-president and general manager of Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. He is also lecturer in clinical epidemiology at the Harvard Medical School. He is a fellow of the American Psycho- logical Association and a fellow as well as a current or former council member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Acoustical Society of America, and the Society of Experimental Psychologists. In 1985 he received the latter society's Warren Medal. He has served on several advisory panels for the Department of Defense (including the Science Advisory Board of the Navy Personnel Research and Development Center), the National Institutes of Health (including the clinical evaluation group of the National Cancer Institute), and the National Research Council (including panels on intraservice standardiza- tion of audiometric tests, research to improve hearing aids, design of a standard emergency signal, and accuracy of polygraph lie detection). He is editor or author of four books and many journal articles. His recent research on enhancement and evaluation of human performance has focused on thinking skills in secondary education and diagnostic skills in the clinic. ROBERT A. BIORK iS professor of psychology at the University of 282
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APPENDIX F 283 California, Los Angeles. He received a B.A. degree in mathematics from the University of Minnesota and a Ph.D. in psychology from Stanford University. He has been assistant, associate, and full professor at the University of Michigan and has been a visiting scientist at Bell Labora- tories, the University of California, San Diego, and the Rockefeller University. His research interests center on human information process- ing, particularly human memory, and on the practical application of that research to instruction and the optimization of performance. He is the author of numerous publications and has presented lectures and seminars to many groups, such as corporate executives, college alumni, educators, lawyers, and physicians, in this country and in Europe. He served as editor of Memory & Cognition from 1981 to 1985 and has been on the editorial boards of several other journals. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and of the Society of Experimental Psychol- ogists and is a member of the Psychonomic Society and the Cognitive Science Society. THOMAS D. COOK is a professor of psychology at Northwestern University and a research/fellow at its Center for Urban Affairs and Public Policy. He went to Northwestern after receiving degrees from Oxford University and Stanford University. He has been a visiting professor at the London School of Economics and a visiting scholar at both the Russell Sage Foundation and the General Accounting Office. He serves on the board of the American Evaluation Association, from which he received the Myrdal prize for science in 1982. He has served on panels for a number of federal agencies: the Department of the Army, the Department of the Treasury, the General Accounting Office, the Department of Education, the Department of Agriculture, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the National Cancer Institute, and the National Science Foundation. He has served on panels for the MacArthur Foundation, the Russell Sage Foundation, the Police Foundation, and the World Bank, as well as on scientific advisory boards for many corporations doing evaluations for the federal government. He is editor or author of four books and many journal articles. His major research interests are theories of the practice of evaluation and the social psycho- logical dynamics associated with poverty in the United States. GERALD C.DAVISON has been professor of psychology at the University of Southern California since 1979. Until 1984 he was also director of clinical training and since then has been department chair. He received an A.B. from Harvard University and a Ph.D. from Stanford University and from 1966 to 1979 taught at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He has published articles on cognitive behavior therapy
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284 APPENDIX F and experimental personality research and is coauthor of three books. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and has served on the executive committee of the Division of Clinical Psychology, on the Board of Scientific Affairs, and on the Committee on Scientific Awards. He is also a past president of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy. He has served on the editorial board of several journals, including the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Behavior Therapy, and Cognitive Therapy and Research. His current research is concerned with cognitive assessment, stress, and hypertension. DANIEL DRUCKMAN is study director of the Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance. He received a Ph.D. in social psychology from Northwestern University and was a winner of the American Institutes for Research's best-in-field award for his disser- tation. He is a member of the Society of Experimental Social Psychology. He was previously the Mathtech scientist at Mathematica, Inc., and senior scientist and program manager at Booz, Allen & Hamilton. He has also been a consultant to the U.S. Foreign Service Institute, the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and the U.S. delegation to the Vienna talks on force reductions. His primary research interests are in the areas of conflict resolution and negotiations, nonverbal communica- tion, group processes, and modeling methodologies, including simulation. He has published four books and numerous articles on these topics, some of which have appeared in the Journal of Conflict Resolution, Advances in Applied Social Psychology, A Handbook of Communication Skills: Comparative Regional Systems, and Corporate Crisis Management. LLOYD G. HUMPHREYS is professor emeritus of psychology and education at the University of Illinois. After receiving degrees from the University of Oregon, Indiana University, and Stanford University, he held postdoctoral appointments at Yale and Columbia universities and faculty appointments at Northwestern University, the University of Washington, and Stanford University prior to his long-time tenure at the University of Illinois. He also served in the Aviation Psychology Program of the Army Air Forces during World War II and headed the Air Force's Personnel Research Laboratory during and for several years following the Korean War. He is a member of the Psychonomic Society (one-time chairman of the governing board) and of the American Educational Research Association. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancemnet of Science (two-time chairman of the psychology section). For the federal government, he served a brief term as assistant director for science education in the National Science Foundation and has been on several advisory panels, including the Air Force's Scientific
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APPENDIX F 285 Advisory Board. He was also associated with the Commission on Human Resources of the National Research Council for a number of years. He is the author of many book chapters and journal articles. In recent years his research has been concerned with individual differences in human abilities and theories of human intelligence. RAY HYMAN is professor of psychology at the University of Oregon, where he has taught since 1961. He received a Ph.D. from The Johns Hopkins University and taught at Harvard University from 1953 to 1958. He has also been a consultant to the General Electric Company, a Fulbright-Hays research scholar (University of Bologna), a National Science Foundation faculty fellow, and a visiting professor of psychology at Stanford University. He serves on the editorial board of The Skeptical Inquirer and is an associate editor of the Zetetic Scholar. His numerous publications on topics related to parapsychology date back to 1957, appearing in both parapsychological and other journals. They include several books, encyclopedia chapters, and technical articles in such journals as Proceedings of the IEEE and the Journal of Parapsychology. DANIEL M. LANDERS is professor in the Department of Health and Physical Education at the Arizona State University. After receiving degrees from the University of Illinois, he was on the faculty at Illinois University, the University of Washington, and the Pennsylvania State University. He is a member of the American Psychological Association, the Society for Psychophysiological Research, and the American College of Sports Medicine. He is a fellow in the Research Consortium of the American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance; a fellow of the American Academy of Physical Education; and former president of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. His advisory work has included membership on education and training committees for national sport governing bodies as well as membership on the Visual Performance and Enhancement and Sport Psychology committees of the U.S. Olympic Committee. He was the cofounder and editor of the Journal of Sport Psychology and has also edited or authored six books and many journal articles. His recent research has dealt with psychophysiological theory and methodology applied to sport and exercise, with a focus on understanding how atheletes control arousal and focus concentration so as to maximize performance. SANDRA ANN MOBL~Y has been director of training and development for the Wyatt Company, an actuarial and benefit consulting organization, since October 1986. She has worked in the field of training and devel- opment in industry for the past seven years. Her previous position as
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286 APPENDIX F manager of executive education at Hewlett Packard gave her broad experience in methods for organizational change and executive devel- opment. She has served on task forces to develop human resource systems for the National Red Cross and the California Youth Authority. In addition, she has consulted on organizational change, training, and development for both high-technology and service-oriented firms. She received bachelor's and master's degrees in mathematics and computer science from the University of Texas at Arlington and a master's in business administration from the Harvard Business School. LYMAN W. PORTER is professor of management and psychology in the Graduate School of Management at the University of California, Irvine. He was formerly dean of the Graduate School of Management. Previously he served 11 years on the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley. During 196~1967 he was a visiting professor in the Department of Administrative Sciences at Yale University. He is past president of the Academy of Management and in 1983 received that organization's award for scholarly contributions to management. He has also served as president of the Division of Industrial-Organizational Psychology of the American Psychological Association. His major fields of interest are organizational psychology and management. He is the author or coauthor of six books and many articles in these fields. MICHAEL POSNER is professor of neuropsychology and psychology at Washington University in St. Louis. He received a Ph.D. from the University of Michigan and taught in the psychology department at the University of Oregon from 1968 to 1985. He has also been a visiting professor at Yale University, Cornell Medical College, and the University of Minnesota and served as director of the neuropsychology laboratory at Good Samaritan Hospital from 1979 to 1985. He has been an editor of the Journal of Experimental Psychology, a Guggenheim fellow, a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the winner of the distinguished scientific contribution award of the American Psychological Association in 1980. His recent work has concentrated on problems of attention and performance, and he has published numerous journal articles and book chapters. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1981. WALTER SCHNEIDER is senior scientist at the Learning Research and Development Center at the University of Pittsburgh. He received a Ph.D. in psychology from the University of California, Berkeley, and was a Miller research fellow there. He was both assistant and associate professor at the University of Illinois and associate professor at the University of
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APPENDIX F 287 Pittsburgh. He is past president of the Society for Computers in Psy- chology. He has served on several panels of the National Research Council, studying such topics as flight simulator training and pilot performance models in computer-aided design. His current research involves skill acquisition and attention, modeling human performance, computer-based training, and neural modeling of attention. JEROME E. SINGER is professor and chair of the Department of Medical Psychology at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda, Md. He received a B.A. in social anthropology from the University of Michigan and a Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Minnesota, as well as a postdoctoral fellowship at Minnesota in histochemistry. He has taught at the Pennsylvania State University and the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He has been a visiting scholar at the Educational Testing Service, a guest researcher at the University of Stockholm, a staff associate at the Social Science Research Council, and study director at the National Research Council. He has been the recipient of the American Association for the Advancement of Science's sociopsychological prize and the outstanding contributor award of the Division of Health Psychology of the American Psychological Association. He is founding editor of the Journal of Basic and Applied Social Psychology and coeditor of two monograph series, Advances in Environmental Psychology and Handbook of Psychology and Health. SALLY P. SPRINGER is visiting professor in the Program in Human Development at the University of California, Davis. She received a B.S. from Brooklyn College and a Ph.D. in experimental psychology from Stanford University and has done postdoctoral work in the Program in Hearing and Speech Sciences at the Stanford University School of Medicine. She was assistant and associate professor of psycno~ogy al one State University of New York at Stony Brook and also served as associate provost there. She is coauthor, with George Deutsch, of Left Brain, Right Brain, winner of the 1981 American Psychological Foundation distin- guished contribution award. Her research and publications have been in the area of hemispheric asymmetry of function. RICHARD F. THOMPSON is professor of psychology and Bing Professor of Human Biology at Stanford University. His previous positions include professor of psychobiology in the School of Biological Sciences at the University of California, Irvine, professor of psychology at Harvard University, and professor of medical psychology and psychiatry at the University of Oregon Medical School. His research is in the broad field of psychobiology, with a focus on the neurobiological substrates of
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288 learning and memory. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Society of Experimental Psychologists, councilor of the Society for Neuroscience, chair of the Psychonomic Society, and president of Division 6 of the American Psychological Association. He has received the distinguished scientific contribution award of the American Psycho- logical Association and a research scientist career award from the National Institute of Mental Health. He received a B.A. degree from Reed College and a Ph.D. in psychobiology from the University of Wisconsin. APPENDIX F
Representative terms from entire chapter: