Click for next page ( 290


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 289
Index A Accelerated learning approach, 49 effectiveness, 19, 50 mete strategies in, 261 military R&D status, 279 mind calming and, 261 music and, 49, 261 pleasant learning restimulation and, 261 programs, 49-51 recommended research, 59-60 research relevant to, 48~9 Suggestopedia method, 49, 58, 261 SuperLearning, effectiveness of, 58 teacher-learner dynamics, 49 user acceptance, 279 see also Suggestive Accelerative Learning and Teaching Techniques (SALTY) Alertness, changes in, 103-104 Altering states of awareness performance and, 2~21, 103-105 Ganzfeld state, 191 techniques for, 7, 104 see also Biofeedback; Meditation; Relaxation American Society for Training and Development, 5 American Soldier project, 125, 135 Anxiety stress end, 118 techniques for countering, 55, 124 see also Stress 289 Apraxias, definition, 255 Army, see U.S. Army Arousal concept, 103 mental computation and, 20-21 priming and, 66 stress and, 103, 117, 121-122 Attentional strategies cognitive-behavioral techniques, 71 Attentional style, measures of, 71, 77 Attitude change through organizational development programs, 137-138 through persuasive communications, 135-1 36 through sleep learning, 45, 47 Autogenic training, 8, 122, 252 Awareness, see Altering states of awareness B Bandler, Richard, 138, 140 Battle fatigue definition, 252 see also Posttraumatic stress disorder Battle shock, definition, 252 Backster, Cleve, 176, 193-196 Behavior modification anger control, 127 through influence strategies, 13~135 neurolinguistic programming and, 6 through organizational development programs, 136-138

OCR for page 289
290 Behavior skills training, stress reduction through, 125-126 Biases cognitive, 35, 202 in influence strategy studies, 135 in military R&D decision making, 267 motivational, 202 subjective, in ESP experiments, 201-202 in testimonials, 17, 34-35, 202 see also Methodological flaws and problems Biofeedback, 3, 5-6 alpha and theta producers, 82-83, 84-85, 252, 253 applications, 78-79, 84, 86, 90-91, 94, 99-100 autogenic training and, 99, 100-101 autonomic events control by, 253 brain frequencies in, 253 characterization, 77, 239, 252 cognitive-behavioral therapy and, 99-100 conditioned emotional response in, 253 economy of effort in exercise through, 90-91, 94, 100 electroencephalography in, 78, 82-88, 100-101, 122-123 electromyography in, 78-82, 98, 100, 122-123, 252-253 event-related potentials controlled by, 85-86, 100 heart rate regulation by, 78, 89-93, 100-101, 252 military R&D status, 279 multiple autonomic response, 98-100 pain reduction by, 78, 83, 86 performance effects, 8, 20, 21, 61, 77, 86, 89-90, 239 recommended research, 88, 95, 98, 100-101 research literature on, 10 respiration regulation by, 91, 94, 100, 253 slow potentials modified by, 86-88, 100 stress management by, 77, 122-123, 253 study problems, 78, 83, 95, 98, 100, 253 temperature regulation and, 94-98, 100-101, 253 INDEX theoretical basis, 239 user acceptance, 279 vasoconstriction, peripheral, and, 94, 253 visually evoked potentials modified by, 86 Bonding, 150-151, 158-160, 164; see also Group cohesion Brain activity, measurement of, 66, 106 ascending reticular activating system in, 103 asymmetry, see Hemispheric laterality event-related potentials, 85-86, 100 Fourier transformations by, 7, 69 frequencies, biofeedback and, 253 hemisphericity, 108-110, 255; see also Hemispheric laterality; Hemispheric synchronization holographic theory, 68-69, 70, 141 neurotransmitter systems, 4, 103 C Carpenter effect, 66 Clairvoyance, - definition, 170, 259 Cognitive restructuring, stress management through, 123-125 Cohesion, see Group cohesion COHORT system cultural elements in, 155, 158, 159 description, 254 evaluation of, 22, 161, 166 positive effects of cohesion in, 134, 159, 161 Combat importance of human element in, 5 effectiveness, stress value in, 4, 116 Commissurotomy, definition, 256; see also Split-brain patients Communications attitude change through, 135-136 eye contact in, 146 see also Influence strategies Concentration, mental, 3 performance and, 104 physical exercises to enhance, 261 SALTS use of, 6, 261 stress effects on, 128 see also Mental rehearsal

OCR for page 289
INDEX Concentration, visual cognitive-behavioral techniques, 71-72, 76 effectiveness of programs, 16, 20, 61, 75 ProVision, 73-75 recommended research, 75-76 training programs, 72-75 Creativity, Hemi-Sync~ and, 7 Culture, organizational, 155, 158, 159 D DeVore, Stephen, 67 E Electroencephalography (EEG) activity, spontaneous, 82-85 measurement of internal state, 104 neurolinguistic programming and, 140-141 sleep stages defined by, 260 synchronization of patterns, 253 see also Biofeedback Electromyography in biofeedback, 78-82, 122-123, 252-253 stress reduction measurement, 253 Emotional states electrical activity in leukocytes and, 193-198 mental computation and, 20 sleep learning alteration of, 45 Enhancement techniques claims, justification for, 4 cost analyses, 18, 31-32 effective, characteristics of, 10 evaluation, see Evaluation of enhancement techniques; Methodological flaws and problems evidence needed to support, 17 implementation, 17, 272-274, 275-276 marketing, ~7 negative effects, 16 positive effects, 15-16 scientific evidence on, 8-9, 16-17 selection considerations, 17-18 short-term vs. long-term effects, 10 sources of, 10 sustainment of programs, 276-278 29] time factors in effectiveness, 57, 137 transfer of, 13, 18 see also Skill learning; and specific techniques ESP, see Extrasensory perception; Paranormal phenomena Ethical issues in sleep learning, 45 stress reduction in military personnel, 131-132 Evaluation of enhancement techniques alternative explanations, 25, 199 by U.S. Army, status, 32-34, 262-279 case histories used for, 160 cohort testing, 20 competitive, 18 contrast of novel program with standard practice, 31, 34 cost analysis, 18, 31-32 criteria, 13, 24-28, 5~59, 153 Delphi technique, 30, 268 describing program consequences, 27-28 difficulties in, 11, 13; see also Biases; Methodological flaws and problems dirty test tube criticism, 199-200 effectiveness measures, see Measures of effectiveness evaluation of pilot programs, 28-32, 34 experimentation benefits, 12, 35 field tests of programs, 26-32, 33 issues, 4, 5, 9-10, 24-35 meta-analysis, 26, 142, 256 monitoring of pilot programs, 30-31, 33 monitoring of research literature, 19 needs analysis, 29-30 organizational contexts, 27-33 performance measures, 153, 155, 161 placebo control group, 8, 98, 253 qualitative approaches, 34-35, 20~202, 205-206 risk in, 27 short-term vs. long-term effects, 10 smoking gun criticism, 199-200 taxonomy and, 13 see also Military R&D processes Expert teacher programs, recommendations for, 20 Extrasensory perception definition, 169-170, 245, 259

OCR for page 289
292 evidence of, 184 majority vote technique in tests, 259 military applications, 171; see also Psychic warfare replication of experiments in, 8 screened touch matching, 260 see also Clairvoyance; Precognition; Remote viewing experiments; Telepathy; Paranormal phenomena F Foreign language acquisition by Hemi-Sync~, 7 by SALTY technique, 6, 50, 52, 55, 58 suggestopedic method, 261 Fourier transforms operations by human brain, 7, 69 Frequency following response, 7, 111-112, 114 G Ganzfeld psi experiments critique of, 191-193, 200 independence of successive trials, 181 meta-analysis in, 257 nature of, 190-191 number of, 178 replicability, 172, 174 research recommendations, 22 success rates, 245 Geller, Uri, 203-204 Group cohesion applications, 163-165, 244 bonding and, 15~151, 158-160, 164 causes, 152-153, 254 concept and components, 149-151, 243, 254 conformity to group norms and, 153 consequences, 151-154, 159-163 costs of building, 164 165 cross-cutting loyalties and, 159, 254 culture in organizations and, 155, 15~159 definition, 150-151 developmental approaches in large organizations, 15~159 deviance handling and, 162 effectiveness of strategies in achieving, 8, 22, 134, 157-158 INDEX enhancement patterns, 254 evaluation of, 160-161 expert power and, 254 external conflict and, 152-153, 157-158, 163 group-serving patterns in, 244, 254 groupthink and, 162 horizontal, 158, 159 interacting vs. coacting teams, 254 legitimate power in, 255 member attraction and, 152, 15~158 military, 150-151 military R&D status, 279; see also COHORT system negative effects, 8, 16, 134, 152, 159, 161-163, 244 negative norms and, 162 normative control system and, 255 organizational commitment and, 151, 154-155, 244 in organizations, 15~159, 163-165; see also Organizational development programs performance and, 152, 153-154, 155, 157-158, 160-162 positive effects, 151-152, 159-161 recommended research on, 22, 134 referent power and, 255 research evidence on, 152-156, 163-164 in small groups, 152-154 vertical, 158-160 Groupthink, 162 Guided imagery, 3, 12 attention and, 104 evidence of effectiveness, 8, 10, 57 modulating factors, 2~21 SALTY use of, 6, 49, 51-52, 57, 261 SyberVision use of, 7 see also Mental imagery; Mental rehearsal H Hawthorne effects control for, 76, 254 definition, 253 in Hemi-Sync<53' studies, 113, 114 in SALTT studies, 56 in stress research, 8, 253 in visual training evaluation, 74 Heart rate regulation by biofeedback, 78, 89-93, 100 101, 252

OCR for page 289
INDEX Hemi-Sync~3' applications, 112-113, 241 approach and claims, 7, 111, 240, 255 binaural beat phenomenon, 7, 111-112, 114, 240 confounding effects in evaluating, 113-114 effectiveness, 21, 112-113, 114, 240 Hemispheric laterality apraxias and, 255 cognitive activities associated with, 108, 255, 256 definition, 106-107, 253 dichotic listening measure of, 255 dual-task expenments, 255 electrophysiological recordings of, 109 evidence of, 21 eye movements and, 109, 140, 255 language and, 140 learning and, 52 matching studies of, 255-256 measurement of, 109 military R&D status on, 278 of negative slow-wave potentials, 88 performance and, 102, 105 processing modes and, 256 see also Split-brain patients Hemispheric symmetry, BEG synchronization, 253 Hemispheric synchronization, 6 in biofeedback, 98 effectiveness, 16, 21 theory and assumptions, 110-111 user acceptance, 279 see also Hemi-Sync~ Holographic brain theory, 6~69, 70, 141 Honorton, Charles, 22, 192-193, 200 Hyman, Ray, 182-183, 191-193, 200 Hypnopedia, see Sleep learning I Imagery, see Guided imagery Influence strategies attitude change through persuasive communications, 135-136 constructing, 135, 148, 149 effectiveness, 137, 148 literature on, 133-135, 137, 166 military R&D status, 279 monitoring of research literature, 19 293 organizational development programs, 136-138, 148-149; see also Group cohesion recommendations on, 19, 22 study design flaws, 135 see also Neurolinguistic programming J Jacobson, Edmund, 122 Jahn, Robert, 22, 141, 175, 186 L Language components in learning, 45 correspondence between nonverbal behavior and, 140, 257; see also Neurolinguistic programming hemispheric specialization in, 106 mental computations in, 2~21 see also Foreign language acquisition Leadership expert power, 2s4 legitimate power, 255 referent power, 255 Learned helplessness, 120 Learning classroom, 6 conceptually driven, 41, 4s cooperative, 54 data- or stimulus-driven, 40-41, 41 ~s,47 expectancy ejects on, 53 knowledge types and, 41~2 language, 45; see also Foreign language acquisition measures of, 42 pleasant learning restimulation, 261 sleep-disrupted, 4s-46, 47-48 storage and retrieval processes in, 40-43; see also Memory, human stress reduction and, s8 symbolic, 6s, 2s7; see also Mental rehearsal vicarious, 7 vocabulary, 4s, 58 whole-brain, s2 see also Accelerated learning; Sleep learning Lewin, Kurt, 136 Lifton, Robert Jay, 129-130 Lozanov, Georgi, 49-so, 261

OCR for page 289
294 Marksmanship M implementation and sustainment of programs, 27~278 mental practice and, 65 neurolinguistic programming and, 143 training procedures, 73, 256 May, Edward, 22 Measures of effectiveness cognitive vs. physiological, 253 counselor empathy, 143, 144 performance measures, 153, 155, 161 of stress management techniques, 253 Meditation, 3 alpha and theta producers in, 252 concentrative, 253 effectiveness, 20 integrated, 253 mindfulness, 253 performance and, 105 practice, 253 transcendental, 122 Memory, human alertness and, 103 awareness and, 43 commissurotomy effects on, 256 dissociation among types of, 41-42 dual-code theory of, 255, 256 episodic, 41 holographic model, 6~69 long-term, improving, 54 optimal conditions for, 104 performance in sleep-deprived state, procedural, 41 propositional theory of, 256 semantic, 41~2 sleep learning and, 40, 46 storage, 4, 41 strength, measurement of, 42-43 stress effects on, 128 see also Sleep learning Mental rehearsal applications, 65, 238, 256 in attentional control training, 71 attention arousal set and, 104, 256 effectiveness, 16, 20, 61-65, 238 elements, 61-62, 238 meta-analysis of, 63, 238, 256 military R&D status, 279 moderating variables in, 63-65 physical rehearsal contrasted with, 63-65, 257 INDEX practice time, 64 skill proficiency requirement, 64 stress management by, 8 SyberVision use of, 7, 67-70, 238 theory and assumptions, 65-67, 70, 237, 257 see also Guided imagery Meta-analysis, 26, 63, 142, 238, 256-257 Methods, experimental benefits of using, 12, 35 contrast of novel program with standard practice, 31, 34 for sleep learning, 47~8 in parapsychology research, see Ganzfeld psi experiments; Random number generator experiments; Remote sensing experiments standards for, 25-26 see also Evaluation of enhancement techniques; Military R&D process Methodological flaws and problems in biofeedback research, 78, 83, 95, 98, 100, 253 expectancy effects, 113-114 file drawer problem in, 259 in Hemi-Sync~ studies, 113-114 illusory covariation, 25, 197-198 implicit sensory cueing, 182-183 independence of successive trials lacking, 180-181 in influence strategy study designs, 135 lack of data, 11 in military R&D process, 271 motivated teacher effect, 55-56, 59 in parapsychology research, 178-184, 186-190, 191-193, 195-198, 200-206, 253 in ProVision evaluation, 74 Pygmalion effect, 56 qualitative evidence, 200-206 replication difficulties, 8, 26, 78, 178 in SALTT research, 55-58, 237 threats to validity, 25-26, 34 transferability of findings, 30-31 see also Biases; Hawthorne effect Military R&D process advanced development, 270-274 applied research and early development, 269-270 decisions involved in, 265-278 engineering development, 274-275

OCR for page 289
INDEX error sources in, 263-265 flaws in methodologies, 271 funding steps, 262-263 Models and modeling attitude, 136 expert performance, 133, 134, 143, 145, 146-148 Monroe Institute of Applied Science, 7, 111 Monroe, Robert, 7, 111 Motivation in advancing enhancement techniques, 4 coercive, 255 Hemi-Sync~ effect on, 112-113 organizational development programs and, 136 SALINE techniques, 50 student and instructor, 50, 59, 112 taxonomic problems, 13 Motor skills fine, 4 strategies for improving, 20, 61-101 Music Hemi-Sync~ and, 113, 240 memorization effects of, 57-58 mental rehearsal and, 68 relaxation induction, 253 SALTS use of, 6, 49-52, 55, 58, 261 suggestive techniques, 55 N Neurolinguistic programming anchors in, 147, 257 applications, 140-141, 243 approach and claims, ~7, 138-141, 242 congruity and, 257 EEG patterns and, 140-141 effectiveness, 8, 16, 21, 133, 143-145, 149, 243 eye movement theory, 139-142, 251-258 internal consistency of, 141~142 modeling expert performances, 133, 134, 143, 145, 146-148 mutual accommodation or convergence, 258 National Association of, 6 predicate matching, 139, 142-143, 242, 258 reframing, 258 295 research on, 142-144 response mode measures, 258 scientific support for, 141, 145 status currently, 144-145 study design, 146 tracking, 258 transactional perspective, 258 unintended consequences, 145-146 user acceptance of, 279 see also Preferred representational system Neuromuscular programming evidence of, 70 SyberVision use of, 68 techniques, 7 theory, 65-66, 70 Neurotransmitters, 4, 103 Novaco-Sarason project, 125, 127, 131 o Organizational cultures, 155, 158-159 Organizational development programs studies of, 154 team building, 154 types and effectiveness, 136-138 see also Group cohesion p Paranormal phenomena applications, 170-171, 245 claims, seriousness of, 171 criticisms of findings, 178-184, 18~190, 191-193, 195-198. 200-206, 253 electrical activity and emotional states, 193-198 evaluation of evidence, 25, 175-200 evidence for, 8, 16, 22, 172, 198-207, 259 meta-analysis, 257 nature of, 169-171, 245 out-of-body experiments, 170, 171 primary perception in plants, 194 problematic beliefs, 203-205 quantum theory and, 172 standards of evidence, 172-175, 198-202 subjective validation of, 177, 19~197 see also Clairvoyance; Extrasensory perception; Precognition; Psi; Psychokinesis; Telepathy

OCR for page 289
296 Parapsychological Association, 176 Parapsychology experiments, see Ganzfeld psi experiments; Random number generator experiments; Remote sensing experiments file drawer problem in, 259 laboratories, 175-176 military R&D status on, 278 preferential matching in, 259 recommended research in, 22, 207-208 replication of experiments in, 8, 172, 174, 178 theory and assumptions, 244 user acceptance, 279 Performance altering states of awareness and, 20-21, 103-105 biofeedback effects on, 8, 20, 21, 61, 77, 86, 89-90, 239 expert, model of, 133, 134, 143, 145, 146-148 group cohesion and, 152, 153-154, 155, 157-158, 160-162 hemispheric laterality and, 102, 105 measures of, 153, 155, 161 meditation and, 105 mental concentration and, 104 peak, 6, 20, 103-105 satisfaction and, 136 in sleep-deprived state, 46 under stress, 20-21, 58, 89-90, 116 Persuasion, attitude change through, 135-136 Physical exercise, concentration enhancement by, 261 Physical rehearsal, mental rehearsal contrasted with, 257 Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and diagnosis, 128-129 treatment, 129-130 Precognition definition, 170, 245, 259 military applications, 171 random number generator experiments, 176 Preferred representational system characterization, 139-140, 242, 258 EEG pattern correlated with, 140 eye movement indicators of, 146, 258 importance in neurolinguistic programming, 142 INDEX predicate matching, 258 tracking to assess, 258 Pribam, Karl, 8, 67, 68, 141 Price, Pat, 177, 182 Provision Training Program, approach and claims, 73-75 Psi conducive conditions for, 203-206 definition, 173 see also Extrasensory perception; Paranormal phenomena Psychic warfare antimissile time warp, 170 First Earth Battalion of warrior monks, 171 hyperspatial nuclear howitzer, 171 psychotropic weapons, 170-171 Psychokinesis definition, 170, 245 evidence for, 190, 207, 245 majority vote technique in tests, 259 metal bending, 171, 203-206 military applications, 171 singles test, 260 see also Random number generator experiments Psychoneuroimmunology, 119 Q Quantum physics Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, 259 imagery analysis, 69 paranormal phenomena and, 172 R Random number generator experiments, 22, 172 characterization of, 184-185, 259 criticism of, 200, 201 results, 185-186, 207 scientific assessment, 186-190 sites for, 175-176 special requirements, 174 well-controlled, 189-190 Reading skills, Hemi-Sync~ applied to, 7 Relaxation alpha and theta producers in, 252 autogenic training and, 81, 252 cognitive, 98 1

OCR for page 289
INDEX electromyography in, 79, 253 hemispheric activity and, 253 mental rehearsal and, 68 music and, 253 progressive, 79, 81 SALTT use of, 6, 49, 51, 52, 57, 261 stress effects on, 128 for stress management, 8 training, 121-122 Remote viewing experiments, 172 criticisms of, 200, 201 independence of experiments, 179-181 nature of, 170 replicability, 174 scientific assessment, 178-184 sensory cueing in, 182-183 SRI program, 176-178 success of, 245 Respiration, biofeedback regulation of, 91,94,100,253 Revien, L., 73 S Satisfaction, performance and, 136 Schmidt, Helmut, 22, 175, 186 Sensitivity training, 13~137 Sensory modalities, preferred, 4, 257-258 Skill learning, 9; see also Behavior skills training; Enhancement techniques Sleep deprivation, memory enhancement and, 46 inducement, 4, 7 stages, 260 stress ejects on, 128 Sleep learning, 3, 6 alpha wave activity and, 39 altering attitudes, affective reactions, or moods, 45 applications, 43~6, 236 costs of, 40, 45~6 disrupted-sleep, 45~6, 47~8 electiveness, 8, 16, 19, 39, 236 elements, 235 ethical issues, 45 hypnopedia, 260 memory tests of, 40 military R&D status, 278 Morse code training, 40, 44~5 positive demonstrations, 39~0 presleep training, 44 297 recommended research on, 19, 46~8 sleep-assisted instruction, 260 state-dependent learning, 46, 47-48 theory, 235 types possible, 43 during verified sleep, 19, 39, 44~5, 47 Social Readjustment Rating Scale, 118 Social psychological research interpersonal influence strategies, 134-149 group cohesion and organizational effects, 149-166 Soviet Union hypnopedia research, 40, 236, 260 parapsychology research, 22, 170, 172 Split-brain patients information processing in, 107-108 learning by, 3 studies of, 106, 256 SRI International, remote viewing programs, 17~178 Statistical brain theory, 141 Stress anxiety end, 118 arousal and, 103, 117, 121-122 biological indicators, 117 cortisol levels and, 119- 121 costs of, 21 diathesis, 118 learning and performance capabilities under, 20-21, 58, 89-90, 116 measurement in people, 118 nature of, 117-121 negative norm enhancement in groups during, 162 physical illness and, 116, 118 resistance to deleterious effects of, 118 response, 116, 118-119, 121 uncertainty and, 119-120 zero defect rule and, 116-117 Stress management/reduction, 3, 6 applications, 242 approaches, 8, 121-127, 241 arousal reduction and, 121-122 during basic training, 13~131 behavior skills training, 125-126 biases in research, 8 by biofeedback, 21, 122-123 by cognitive restructuring, 123-125 conditioned emotional response in, 253

OCR for page 289
298 in drill instructors, 125, 127, 131 through environmental changes, }26-127 ethical issues, 131-132 Hawthorne effect in, 253 by Hemi-Sync<3, 7, 112-113 military R&D status, 279 in military settings, 127-131 measures of, 253 military concerns with 116-117 programs, 130-131 rational emotive therapy for, 124 recommended research on, 21 research literature on, 10, 127 results, 241 self-instruction to guide behavior, 124 social problem solving for, 124-125 theory and assumptions, 241, 253 time management, 126 uncertainty reduction and, 16, 21, 115, 122, 125, 126-127, 130-131 Suggestive Accelerative Learning and Teaching Techniques (SALTT) approach and claims, 6, 49, 50, 236, 261 classroom environment, 51-52 effectiveness, 16, 19, 237 evidence for, 52-59 literature review, 54-58 Society for, 49 study design weaknesses and questionable interpretations, 55-58, 237 theory and assumptions, 6, 52-53, 236, 261 Suggestive principles, SALTT use of, 6, 261 Suggestopedia, 49, 50, 261 SyberVision approach and claims, 7-8, 67-70, 238 recommended research, 70 T Telepathy, definition, 170, 260 Temperature control in body extremities, 9~98, 100-101, 253 Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style, 71, 77 Testimonials, value as evidence, 11, 17, 54-55, 172, 200-202 Tests as motivational devices and learning events, 54 INDEX T-groups, 136-137 Thurstone, L. L., 40 U.S. Army, 3 U bidding procedures, 18 cohesion in, 150-151 evaluation resources and needs, 15-17, 19, 28 evaluation standards relative to scientific standards, 27 HARDMAN methods, 274 implementation of new techniques, 15, 16, 30, 31, 272-274 MANPRINT program, 274 marksmanship program, implementing and sustaining, 276-278 monitoring of parapsychology research, 22-23 New Manning System field evaluation, 160-161 peacetime vs. wartime needs, 273 personnel turnover and pilot programs, 30, 273 psychological techniques incorporated into training, 61 racial tension among peers in Vietnam, 158 R&D process, see Military R&D process SALTT study by, 58 skill training needs, 4-5, 8, 29-30 solicitation and evaluation processes for new enhancement techniques, 32-34 stress reduction in, 20, 125, 127-131 techniques of interest to, 6 zero defect rule, 116-117 see also COHORT system V Vasoconstriction, peripheral, by biofeedback, 253 Vietnam veterans, trauma problems and treatment, 129-130 Visual training programs/exercises design, 72-73 effectiveness, 16, 20, 61 Olympic Committee appropriation for, 76

OCR for page 289
INDEX ProVision, 73-75 research literature on, 75 Visuospatial processing hemispheric specialization in, 106 by split-brain patients, 256 299 W Waiting-list control group, 254 Wolpe, Joseph, 122

OCR for page 289