Summary of the Workshop on Structural Nanomaterials

June 20–21, 2001

Washington, D.C.

Robert Dowding

Delcie Durham

NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Summary of the Workshop on Structural Nanomaterials Summary of the Workshop on Structural Nanomaterials June 20–21, 2001 Washington, D.C. Robert Dowding Delcie Durham NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Summary of the Workshop on Structural Nanomaterials NOTICE: The workshop that is the subject of this summary was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The workshop was conducted by the National Materials Advisory Board under Grant No. DASC02-01-P-0038 from the U.S. Army National Ground Intelligence Center. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Available in limited supply from National Materials Advisory Board, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20418; 202–334–3505; nmab@nas.edu; http://www.nas.edu/nmab Cover: Illustration of a thermal spray gun courtesy of Stephen Ridder, National Institute of Standards and Technology. Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Summary of the Workshop on Structural Nanomaterials THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I.Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Wm. A.Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Summary of the Workshop on Structural Nanomaterials NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD EDGAR A.STARKE, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Chair EDWARD C.DOWLING, Cleveland Cliffs, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio THOMAS EAGAR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge HAMISH FRASER, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio ALASTAIR M.GLASS, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey MARTIN E.GLICKSMAN, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York JOHN A.S.GREEN, The Aluminum Association, Washington, D.C. THOMAS HARTWICK, TRW (retired), Snohomish, Washington ALLAN J.JACOBSON, University of Houston, Houston, Texas MICHAEL JAFFE, New Jersey Center for Biomaterials and Medical Devices, Piscataway, New Jersey SYLVIA M.JOHNSON, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California FRANK E.KARASZ, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts SHEILA F.KIA, General Motors Research and Development, Warren, Michigan HARRY A.LIPSITT, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio ALAN G.MILLER, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Seattle, Washington ROBERT C.PFAHL, Motorola, Schaumberg, Illinois JULIA PHILLIPS, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico HENRY RACK, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina KENNETH L.REIFSNIDER, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia T.S.SUDARSHAN, Modification, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia JULIA WEERTMAN, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois Staff TONI MARECHAUX, Director ARUL MOZHI, Associate Director JULIUS C.CHANG, Program Officer JANICE PRISCO, Project Assistant

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Summary of the Workshop on Structural Nanomaterials Preface The Workshop on Structural Nanomaterials, planned and organized by the members and staff of the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB) of the National Research Council (NRC), was conducted under a contract with the U.S. Army’s National Ground Intelligence Center (NGIC). NGIC sponsored the workshop to help its Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Technologies Working Group, under the auspices of the Scientific and Technical Intelligence Committee, identify the key enabling technologies, junctures, and “choke-point” areas that are deemed critical to the scientific, technological, and commercial advancement of structural nanomaterials. NGIC intends to use the input gained from this workshop as a guide and reference in drafting a classified report on the technology status of nanomaterials, with an emphasis on structural nanomaterials. The workshop focused on nanomaterials having properties particularly suitable for structural applications. Appendix A lists the workshop participants and the agenda. The objectives of this workshop were as follows: Develop a consistent definition of the terms used in the field, to include nanoscale, nanotechnology, nanoscience, nanophase, nanoparticle, nanotube, nanolayer, nanomaterial, nanostructure, and nanostructural material. Identify the scientific and technological challenges and the commercial opportunities in the following areas: Synthesis of nanomaterial building blocks, Assembly of nanomaterials from the building blocks, Characterization of nanomaterials, and Potential structural applications of nanomaterials. Discuss key examples of structural nanomaterials science and technology. For each example identify the current level of understanding of the system, particularly with respect to synthesis, assembly, and chemical and physical characterization. Identify interdisciplinary issues. Determine the major barriers to scientific understanding and technological utility of structural nanomaterials. Identify the requirements to overcome the barriers. The NMAB staff would like to thank all those who attended the workshop (see Appendix B), and the following individuals, who prepared presentations: Chris Berndt, SUNY Stony Brook Thomas Gates, NASA Langley Research Center

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Summary of the Workshop on Structural Nanomaterials Maurice Gell, University of Connecticut Terence Langdon, University of Southern California Evan Ma, Johns Hopkins University Sara Majetich, Carnegie Mellon University Geoffrey Malafsky, Technology Intelligence International Merrilea Mayo, Pennsylvania State University Walter Milligan, Michigan Technological University Joseph W.Piche, Eikos Inc. James Rawers, Albany Research Center, Department of Energy Stephen Ridder, National Institute of Standards and Technology Ganesh Skandan, Nanopowder Enterprises T.S.Sudarshan, Materials Modification Inc. Klaus Tomantschger, Integran Technologies Julia Weertman, Northwestern University Norman Wereley, University of Maryland Danny Xiao, Inframat Corporation Jackie Ying, Massachusetts Institute of Technology NMAB thanks the session chairs: Julia Weertman, Northwestern University; T.S. Sudarshan, Materials Modification Inc.; Delcie Durham, National Science Foundation; Robert Dowding, Army Research Laboratory; Lawrence Kabacoff, Office of Naval Research, and Thomas Gates, NASA-Langley Research Center. It is particularly grateful to Dr. Dowding and Dr. Durham for acting as the workshop’s rapporteurs and for preparing the workshop summary. Dr. Sudarshan and Professor Weertman were invaluable as co-chairs of the workshop. This summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the summary meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the workshop objectives. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this summary: Mike Davey, NRC; Thomas Gates, NASA Langley Research Center; and Henry Rack, Clemson University. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the summary before its release. The review of this summary was overseen by Ganesh Skandan, Nanopowder Enterprises. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the institution. Comments and suggestions may be sent via e-mail to NMAB at NMAB@nas.edu or by fax to (202) 334–3718.

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Summary of the Workshop on Structural Nanomaterials Contents     INTRODUCTION   1 SESSION 1:   SYNTHESIS, ASSEMBLY, AND PROCESSING   3 SESSION 2:   FABRICATION AND PRODUCTION   9 SESSION 3:   APPLICATIONS   17 SESSION 4:   STRUCTURE, PROPERTIES, AND CHARACTERIZATION   23 SESSION 5:   MODELING AND SIMULATION   25     WORKSHOP WRAP-UP   29     APPENDIXES   31     A WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS AND AGENDA   33     B LIST OF ATTENDEES   39