3
Responding to Issues Critical to the Development of Successful Applications

It was clear from discussions at the workshop and in the steering committee’s subsequent deliberations that the acquisition of data is merely the first step in developing successful applications of remote sensing. The path from obtaining data and imagery to operationalizing an application is long and complex, involving individuals and organizations with diverse requirements and needs. To better understand the process, the steering committee considered certain concerns voiced repeatedly by workshop participants and identified a series of implementation issues as being critical to the development of successful new applications. These issues are the cost-effectiveness of applications; the timeliness, reliability, and continuity of data and data products; standardization of data formats; workforce and educational issues; and intellectual property issues. The steering committee was particularly interested in identifying barriers to new applications, bottlenecks that slowed or derailed the adoption of applications, and, most importantly, responses to these problems that can minimize or circumvent them.

COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF APPLICATIONS

Cost is a critical issue in the adoption of remote sensing applications both for those who develop an application and for its end users. Costs tend to vary by application. However, unless a remote sensing application is cost-effective and the value of the data or the resulting program efficiency or quality exceeds the associated costs over time, it will not be adopted or maintained.

Two types of costs are incurred when developing new applications: the cost of the data and the institutional costs of developing and maintaining the applica-



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Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications 3 Responding to Issues Critical to the Development of Successful Applications It was clear from discussions at the workshop and in the steering committee’s subsequent deliberations that the acquisition of data is merely the first step in developing successful applications of remote sensing. The path from obtaining data and imagery to operationalizing an application is long and complex, involving individuals and organizations with diverse requirements and needs. To better understand the process, the steering committee considered certain concerns voiced repeatedly by workshop participants and identified a series of implementation issues as being critical to the development of successful new applications. These issues are the cost-effectiveness of applications; the timeliness, reliability, and continuity of data and data products; standardization of data formats; workforce and educational issues; and intellectual property issues. The steering committee was particularly interested in identifying barriers to new applications, bottlenecks that slowed or derailed the adoption of applications, and, most importantly, responses to these problems that can minimize or circumvent them. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF APPLICATIONS Cost is a critical issue in the adoption of remote sensing applications both for those who develop an application and for its end users. Costs tend to vary by application. However, unless a remote sensing application is cost-effective and the value of the data or the resulting program efficiency or quality exceeds the associated costs over time, it will not be adopted or maintained. Two types of costs are incurred when developing new applications: the cost of the data and the institutional costs of developing and maintaining the applica-

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Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications tion. Data can be expensive. Federal program managers reported to the steering committee that the initial cost of the data is often the most important element in determining the extent to which a new measurement or monitoring method is used, even if the information derived from the new method offers significant improvements over the old. In the case discussed (the use of remote sensing data for monitoring harmful algal blooms), uncertainties about the cost of SeaWiFs data was an issue in the Environmental Protection Agency’s use of remote sensing data in this application (see Chapter 2, Box 2.1). NOAA’s National Ocean Services representatives also reported that the cost of commercially produced remote sensing data obtained from both satellites and aircraft makes it difficult to achieve the agency’s mission. In addition, the workshop case study on coastal sewage discharge monitoring, presented by Ocean Imaging Inc., showed that the costs of data impeded effective, continuous coastal monitoring-a definite barrier in a dynamic application area that requires near-real-time data to monitor change (see Chapter 2, Box 2.3). For the applications user, moreover, the cost of a remote sensing information product begins rather than ends with the cost of the data. For example, an organization that decides to use remote sensing imagery in-house must hire trained staff or provide technical training to current staff, acquire the computer hardware and software needed to manipulate and store the data sets, and purchase other data for integration with the remote sensing imagery. Such expenses may be in addition to costs for existing capital equipment and human resources that are not fungible. Even when these expenses have been met, workshop participants indicated the transformation of remote sensing data into usable information requires additional investments. Much of the available remote sensing software is not easy to use, and according to discussions at the workshop, interpreting and analyzing the data can require extensive experience with frequent training required to maintain skills. Consequently, the expense of creating the institutional infrastructure required for developing in-house remote sensing applications constitutes a barrier for some organizations and a temporary bottleneck for others. Finally, as suggested in Chapter 2, incorporating the new information into ongoing decision processes requires a further investment of time and effort in demonstrations, training, and lengthy discussions with nontechnical decision makers to communicate the meaning of the application and its results. An organization beginning to use remote sensing must balance the initial investments required to obtain information from this new technology against competing (and compelling) investments of time, personnel, and financial resources for other purposes. Within any organization, the use of remote sensing applications inevitably competes with the use of other, often traditional, sources of information for decision making (provided by employees already in place). An example of the tension between existing technology and new technology is noted in the SHOALS program described in Chapter 2. Moreover, in many cases expenditures for existing information sources (personnel, infrastructure, informa-

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Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications tion) must be sustained at the same time that new remote sensing expenses are assumed. The costs associated with continued use of traditional data can appear small when compared with the costs of adding the institutional infrastructure necessary to produce information through a new technology like remote sensing. Some organizations may choose not to support and maintain the in-house infrastructure (equipment, skilled personnel, data acquisition capabilities) required to develop and use remote sensing applications. A viable alternative is for an organization to obtain remote sensing information products directly from an external service provider, often referred to as a value-adding company. Value-adding service providers handle the selection of appropriate remote sensing data, processing of the data, and development of the application, along with other services, to meet a user’s needs. These companies can help clarify the information needs of end users and then act as brokers in securing the skills and services to address those needs. As with outsourced services in general, this approach might reduce initial costs, particularly those for acquisition of imagery and fixed personnel costs. It could also, however, involve searching for an appropriate service provider in an unfamiliar field and, if the demand for the applied products grows, spending large amounts in direct costs over a number of years in payments to the service provider. Moreover, as noted in previous Space Studies Board reports, any organization using remote sensing applications will benefit from a level of internal technical knowledge and experience so as to be a “smart buyer” of remote sensing products and services.1 Given the budgetary difficulties and at times the reluctance of organizations to support regular in-house training, the development of applications could be fostered with external support for such training. For example, the steering committee learned through workshop discussions of the possibility that remote sensing data, service, and software providers in both the public and the private sectors could develop inexpensive programs and short courses for technical and user training and updating of skills in applied remote sensing. As pointed out in the workshop splinter sessions, one vehicle for stimulating the development of training and course materials is the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The SBIR is a government-wide program to encourage research and development contributions by small business, stimulate 1   See Space Studies Board, National Research Council, Assessment of Technology Development in NASA’s Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 1998, pp. 22–23; “Continuing Assessment of Technology Development in NASA’s Office of Space Science,” letter from Daniel J.Fink, Chair, Task Group on Technology Development in NASA’s Office of Space Science, and Claude R.Canizares, Chair, Space Studies Board, to Dr. Edward J.Weiler, Associate Administrator, Office of Space Science, NASA, March 15, 2000, pp. 6–8.

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Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications innovation in science and technology areas, develop and commercialize new technologies, products and services, and make these assets available to federal agencies.2 The SBIR program could be used to develop training materials and courses to foster the use of remote sensing data both within and outside of federal government agencies. Moreover, remote sensing training and educational services may emerge as an important market for private companies; the SBIR could serve to encourage such market development. The three case studies described in Chapter 2 showed that cost-effective applications take time. Organizations should be aware that applications require both initial and ongoing expenditures and that the cost of developing an application will be higher at the beginning. To reduce the budgetary impact of the initial costs, the steering committee suggests that these costs, like the benefits of remote sensing applications, be amortized over the life of the application if possible. In addition, however, new ways of reducing the start-up costs of developing applications must be identified. NASA’s Office of Earth Science, Division of Applications, which is charged with securing and employing the resources required to move research into applications and fostering the operational use of remote sensing, could play a significant role in exploring more cost-effective ways to develop and implement applications. Although the steering committee considered the nature and range of expenditures required to develop remote sensing applications, it does not attempt cost-benefit analyses or address the issue of return on investment. This important factor could not be explored in the workshop setting and was outside the scope of the workshop. However, research on the life-cycle costs and on the benefits of operational remote sensing applications could inform institutional decision making about the use of remote sensing applications. The research that has been done on cost-effectiveness is mainly proprietary market research for private sector companies. Focused cost-benefit analyses of remote sensing products and services could be used to assess whether applications are efficient and whether specific applications cost-effectively fulfill the purpose for which they were designed. Such analyses could be used to inform decisions about whether to invest in the data and infrastructure to produce remote sensing applications, to purchase the products and services from value-adding companies, or to maintain existing data systems. Studies are needed to understand the life-cycle costs and benefits of using remote sensing for major public and private sector applications, similar to the cost-benefit studies conducted in the private sector remote sensing industry. 2   Public Law 106–554-Appendix I-H.R. 5667, The Small Business Innovation Research Program Reauthorization Act of 2000.

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Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications TIMELINESS OF DATA The timeliness of remote sensing data can be an issue with respect to the initial data acquisition, the frequency of repeat coverage for detecting, monitoring, or modeling change, and the delivery of the data to the user. Because many applications of remote sensing data and information require near-real-time data, timeliness is an issue in developing new applications. Gaps of weeks to months between obtaining and processing the data are unacceptable for many operational applications, such as mitigation of potentially harmful events. For agricultural and natural resource applications, for example, remote sensing data is useful to the extent that it can provide information tied to the growth cycle and can be delivered rapidly enough to permit management interventions in this cycle. For example, data on a soybean or cotton field that are more than 1 week old are usually considered to have little value for making decisions. If insects or disease have affected a crop, a farmer may have only a few days to take corrective action once the problem has been diagnosed. Information on the status of the crop obtained as little as 2 weeks later may be irrelevant. Participants and speakers at the workshop reported that in coastal areas, timeliness is equally important. The case study on satellite and aerial remote sensing for coastal sewage discharge monitoring (Chapter 2, Box 2.3) pointed out that local water quality boards must obtain notice of sewage plumes moving toward public beaches in time to take action to protect public health. Monitoring sewage outfall and storm runoff requires data that can be processed, interpreted, and delivered to the end user in less than 24 hours. There are natural, technical, and institutional factors that conspire to reduce the timeliness of initial remote sensing data acquisition and the frequency of repeat coverage. Cloud cover, daylight, and weather are natural factors that interfere with visibility, and for those areas that experience routine heavy cloud cover, this can be a serious limitation. At times, seasonal weather patterns, such as the very wet summer of 2000, can seriously limit the use of remote sensing for extended periods of time. Radar satellites that can provide cloud-penetrating coverage generally supply lower-resolution data than do optical systems and consequently may not meet the requirements of some applications users.3 Technical factors influencing the timeliness of images of specific locations include orbital characteristics such as the path of the satellite and the schedule for its return flyover. The number of satellites in orbit and their availability to image specific targets also affect timely access to images. Timeliness of data delivery also varies widely by instrument and the source 3   Dehquanzada, Yahya A., and Florini, Ann M., Secrets for Sale: How Commercial Satellite Imagery Will Change the World, Washington, D.C., Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2000, p. 25.

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Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications of the data. For example, as noted in the coastal sewage discharge case study, data from the AVHRR, SeaWiFS, and the MODIS sensors can be obtained on a near-real-time basis. However, the spatial resolution of the data is too coarse for many applications. Data of higher resolution are often obtained at less frequent intervals. Workshop discussions emphasized that real-time access requires the upfront design of an end-to-end data collection, processing, and distribution system. It cannot be implemented in an ad hoc manner. Information users must carefully document the need for timeliness in initial acquisition and repeat coverage of imagery. This could be done both in acquiring the data and through studies of the economic trade-offs between the value for applications of timely data and the financial costs of systems that provide timely repeat coverage. The results of such research could then be used when designing or maintaining satellite systems by both the government and the private sector. One means of obtaining more timely data is to coordinate observations from several government and private sector Earth observing satellites. Such coordination could provide data with the same spatial, spectral, and geographic coverage.4 This will not be easy to do, however, because the systems were initially designed to meet different sets of needs. Another approach to increasing the realtime collection of data is to increase the number of receiving stations for the data on the ground. Both government and commercial systems are relying on a small number of ground stations for data acquisition, thus further constraining the flow of data to the user community. Moreover, given the breadth of the potential applications community, broad distribution of many small, customized remote sensing products could tax a centralized architecture that relies on global-scale standard products. Workshop splinter discussions suggested the development and deployment of low-cost ground stations that could be coupled with data processing systems. The model for this approach is the present network of high-resolution picture transmission (HRPT) stations for acquiring Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) data. However, the next generation of meteorological satellites will be based on X-band downlinks, which at present are much more expensive than the L-band systems used for POES.5 To download the collected remotely sensed satellite data, a receiving station must be within the field of view of the satellite and/or be able to communicate with the tracking data and relay satellites that can relay the data to a receiving station. 4   Space Studies Board, National Research Council, The Role of Small Satellites in NASA and NOAA Earth Observation Programs, Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 2000, p. 43. 5   Researchers in the Earth science community report that a typical HRPT station can be purchased for less than $100,000, whereas a low-cost X-band station costs an estimated $300,000 to $500,000.

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Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications RELIABILITY AND CONTINUITY OF DATA It was clear from the steering committee’s discussions and the case studies that if remote sensing data are to become an intrinsic component in operational applications, there must be reliable access to the data over time. Reliability encompasses both continuity in the source of data and stability in data provision. Continuity in data sources has been difficult to achieve in the past because of the limited life span of satellites and changes in the purpose of specific instruments due to both technical advances and scientific need. Unlike the weather satellites, scientific and commercial satellites have not been designed to provide continuous, reliable data for long-term operational use. NASA’s Earth science missions are designed to collect measurements for science objectives that may or may not involve long-term data collection and continuity.6 Although operational data produced by instruments such as NOAA’s polar-orbiting satellites do meet requirements for reliable and continuous access, these sensors were designed to meet short-term forecast needs, which do not always coincide with applications users’ needs for long-term observations to support regulatory applications.7 During splinter sessions at the workshop, participants noted that because it takes many years for applications to be developed and their use made routine in an organization or government agency, managers are reluctant to commit resources to remote sensing applications when there is no assurance that the data will be available in the long run. Both commercial and government data systems may pose problems for applications users who desire assurances of the reliability and continuity of data. The potential for the failure of satellites or business strategies, or for inadequate returns on investments, could limit end users’ confidence in commercial providers as a source of reliable access to remote sensing data and influence their decisions about whether or not to invest in the data. Similarly, the potential for budget cuts, policy shifts, and changes in scientific priorities could limit users’ expectations for the continuity of data from government sources. 6   See Space Studies Board, National Research Council, Issues in the Integration of Research and Operational Satellite Systems for Climate Research: I. Science and Design, Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 2000; Space Studies Board, National Research Council, Review of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Research Strategy, Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 2000. 7   For more background on the use of polar-orbiting satellites for long-term observational measurements (for climate monitoring), see Space Studies Board, National Research Council, Issues in the Integration of Research and Operational Satellite Systems for Climate Research: I. Science and Design, Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 2000; National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Climate Measurement Requirements for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Workshop Report, Herbert Jacobowitz, ed., College Park, Md., University of Maryland, February 1997.

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Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications The steering committee heard, through repeated emphasis in the workshop, about the importance of the continuity of data series for operational applications, whether the data were produced in the public or private sector. Landsat was cited often as an example of an applications-friendly remote sensing system that has gained in utility because it provides access to usable data over what are, for remote sensing, long time periods. Yet the future of a follow-on to Landsat 7, whether a public or private sector system, is uncertain, and that uncertainty may undercut the continued utility of Landsat 7 data for new applications. If a decision is required on whether to continue a remote sensing system or to replace it with a different system, the decision should be based on applications criteria as well as scientific and technical criteria. Advisory bodies that are consulted about these decisions should include applications users in the public and private sectors. In short, there should be clearer communication between remote sensing policy makers and applied users than exists at present. The discussions during the workshop and within the steering committee raised several other questions related to the continuity of data. Issues such as access to legacy data for applications and the need for an infrastructure and a management system for archiving legacy data will be addressed in the steering committee’s second workshop, which will focus on the implications of the commercial remote sensing environment for scientific research. DATA FORMATS AND STANDARDS Users of remote sensing data need more consistent data formats. Data that require considerable preprocessing because they are referenced to a special map projection or a database not in common use often cause users to incur large processing costs that add to the total cost of the application. Both applications users and data suppliers incur additional costs because of the need to handle data in multiple formats. Because there are no written standards for the collection or formatting of remotely sensed images, customers who order data from multiple vendors are faced with processing data in multiple formats. Workshop participants told the steering committee that vendors generally provide the data in the format requested by the customer, but this practice requires vendors to support several types of data formats and thus merely transfers the burden to data producers. Some applications users reported that having fixed standards for verifying and validating data, open and available protocols for developing algorithms, and standard software for processing data would encourage more widespread development and use of applications. Standard formats would allow the creation of standard data products. In the long term, standardization might help resolve some of the current impediments to the development and use of remote sensing. In the short term, workshop participants noted, vendors could post data as “geotif” files of unprocessed, raw data to enable users to make a quick decision about a

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Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications data source. One response to the small number of raster data formats is to use the raster data format specifications being developed by the Federal Geographical Data Committee8 with input from the OpenGIS Consortium.9 EDUCATION, TRAINING, AND THE REMOTE SENSING WORKFORCE Multiple issues related to the remote sensing workforce have to be addressed to stimulate the pace of development of operational applications and to bridge the gap between data and information. The workshop discussions reiterated the importance of trained technical staff. Whether in the public or the private sector, an organization’s capacity to incorporate remote sensing applications into its operations depends on having either technical staff with the necessary skills and understanding to process the data and transform it into usable information, or knowledgeable staff who can manage contracts with external, value-adding service providers. A major issue is the technical difficulty posed by working with remote sensing data. Because of the complexity of remote sensing images, extracting useful information requires a high level of user sophistication and training. Although technical expertise is not the only element needed to introduce or develop new applications of remote sensing, it plays a critical role. In addition, a technically trained staff member is often the only one who can bridge the gap between the technology and the needs of users within an organization. Several levels of education and training are important for sustaining the remote sensing research and applications infrastructure. Some agency representatives voiced the concern that government institutions often have an aging workforce in which few new positions are created and few younger employees are entering the system. As a consequence, there are few opportunities to hire employees with new skill sets or to transfer knowledge to new hires. Universities play a dual role in remote sensing research and education. Uni- 8   “The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) coordinates the development of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI). The NSDI encompasses policies, standards, and procedures for organizations to cooperatively produce and share geographic data. The 17 federal agencies that make up the FGDC are developing the NSDI in cooperation with organizations from state, local and tribal governments, the academic community, and the private sector.” From information accessed online at <http://www.fgdc.gov/> on December 28, 2000. 9   The OpenGIS Consortium is an organization composed of members from the private sector, government agencies, and academic institutions in both the United States and abroad. The consortium is working to improve interoperability among systems for processing georeferenced data and general computing systems and to establish consensus on technology standards and business process innovations that would allow users to treat georeferenced data like other standard data types. See “Open GIS Consortium: Spatial Connectivity for a Changing World,” available online at <http://www.opengis.org/info/brochure/brochure0599.pdf>.

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Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications versity faculty provide instruction in the use of remote sensing for scientific inquiry, including research using state-of-the-art remote sensing technologies and the development of new algorithms. Fields such as oceanography, geography, and forestry typically incorporate remote sensing as a fundamental research tool. It is also in the universities that core remote sensing research, which is vital to future advances in the field, is conducted. Academic education and research are equally important for applications. However, there is some concern about the prospects for academia’s maintaining the strength necessary to meet these needs in the future. The steering committee heard through workshop discussions, for example, that because of the availability of lucrative jobs in private industry, many students take professional positions as remote sensing experts, leaving the university with a master’s degree or even before obtaining an advanced degree. There was a concern for the continuation of a sufficiently strong remote sensing faculty in universities to train the next generation of remote sensing applications developers.10 Some universities provide technical extension training in remote sensing and other spatial information technologies for practitioners. This type of ongoing training, which is needed to support professional remote sensing experts already working in the public or private sector, includes photogrammetry, mapping, and remote sensing and geographic information systems, and it plays an essential role in maintaining a technically proficient corps of remote sensing professionals and in updating their skills. A third type of training is that provided to nontechnical users who need instruction in the use and interpretation of remote sensing information as a tool for decision making. The importance of providing this type of training should not be underestimated. Because the utility of remote sensing data is in its information content, and the ultimate users of remote sensing applications are likely to be nontechnical decision makers who influence budget decisions, it is very important that the end users understand the potential, the advantages, and the limitations of remote sensing data. End users are often ignored in remote sensing instruction and education. User training could be offered in universities or through commercial sector data providers or other private sector companies. One issue in training is the need to standardize remote sensing training so that professionals in the field share a common background and skill set.11 There 10   See Potestio, D.S., An Introduction to Geographic Information Technologies and Their Applications, Washington, D.C., National Conference of State Legislatures, p. 92. In addition, the American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing is preparing a 10-year industry forecast. Information on the status of this forecast can be located online at <http://www.asprs.org/html> under the “News and External Affairs” category, which includes a link to the “Ten Year Industry Forecast.” 11   See Estes, John E., and Jensen, John R., “Development of Remote Sensing Digital Image Processing Systems and Raster GIS,” The History of Geographic Information Systems, T.Foresman, ed., New York, Longman, Inc., pp. 163–180; and American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, ASPRS Certification Program, Bethesda, Md., ASPRS, 2000.

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Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications is currently no remote sensing core curriculum, nor are there internationally recognized certification or registration requirements. The American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing and NASA are developing a remote sensing core curriculum, but its use will not be mandatory. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) committee on spatial data standards is creating a working group to consider international standards for certification of geographic information system (including remote sensing) professionals.12 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ISSUES Emerging intellectual property-related practices affect the cost of remote sensing applications and require new approaches to managing and safeguarding property rights. Several National Research Council reports have addressed important intellectual property issues regarding digital databases and information, including remote sensing data.13 These studies have noted that under current copyright law the data themselves, whether produced by the public or private sector, are not copyrightable, although the original selection, coordination, and arrangement of the data in databases may be copyrightable.14 Databases also can be protected by contract, trade secret law, and some state unfair competition law, as well as by various technological safeguards and a variety of business practices. The steering committee learned from workshop discussions that there is a growing trend toward licensing rather than selling commercially produced databases, and thus the terms for use of the data are governed by the terms of the license. Unless licenses are constructed with the concerns of the applications community in mind, successive uses of the same data could become very costly. This expense could eventually become a disincentive to using remote sensing data, given the other applications costs that must be met. Applications users have special concerns with respect to intellectual property rights. If an application is developed in a government agency, there may be a need to share that product throughout the agency, with officials in other levels of government, or even with the public. Applications developed by private sector remote sensing service providers, however, often may be conceived with the intent of providing related services to multiple users for a fee, or may be devel- 12   Kemp, K., Educational Challenges Workshop, Minneapolis, Minn., University Consortium for Geographic Information Science (UCGIS), 1999, p. 6. Also see <www.ucgis.org/edu2.htm>. 13   See National Research Council, Bits of Power: Issues in Global Access to Scientific Data (1997), A Question of Balance: Private Rights and the Public Interest in Scientific and Technical Databases (1999), and The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age (2000), all published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 14   See the 1976 Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C., section 101, and Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co., 111 S. Ct. 1282 (1991).

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Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications oped for a single client who wishes to make the data available to many users over time. Licenses already reflect several approaches to addressing the needs of multiple users. And workshop participants suggested that licensing terms could specify whether subsets of the data might be publishable, or that licenses could be priced according to the degree to which the user intends to disseminate the data, so that all users do not pay for the dissemination needs of a few. As the industry matures, it will be important to evaluate how different approaches to licensing affect the applications community and the overall development of new applications for remote sensing data. The workshop splinter sessions raised several additional questions related to intellectual property rights and the needs of scientific remote sensing data users, such as publication of scientific research, the free and open circulation of the results of scientific research and access to that research, and the sharing of data for collaborative research-issues that will be explored in the steering committee’s second workshop.