Westoby, M., M.R. Leishman, and J.M. Lord. 1995. On misinterpreting the ‘phylogenetic correction.’ Journal of Ecology 83: 531-534.

Whisenant, S.G. 1990. Changing fire frequencies on Idaho’s Snake River plains: Ecological and management implications. Pages 4-10 in McArthur, E.D., E.M. Romney, S.D. Smith, and P.T. Tueller, eds., Proceedings of the Symposium on Cheatgrass Invasion, Shrub Die-Off, and Other Aspects of Shrub Biology and Management. Ogdon, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station.

Wilcove, D.S., D. Rothstein, J. Dubow, A. Phillips, and E. Losos. 1998. Quantifying threats to imperiled species in the United States. BioScience 48:607-615.

Wilcove, D.S., D. Rothstein, J. Dubow, A. Phillips, and E. Losos. 2000. Leading threats to biodiversity: What’s imperiling U.S. species. Pages 239-254 in Stein, B.A., L.S. Kutner, and J.S. Adams, eds., Precious Heritage: The status of biodiversity in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press.

Williams, D.G., and Z. Baruch. 2000. African grass invasion in the Americas: Ecosystem consequences and the role of ecophysiology. Biological Invasions 2:123-140.

Williams, D.W., and A.M. Liebhold. 1995. Influence of weather on the synchrony of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) outbreaks in New England. Environ. Entomol. 24:987-995.

Williamson, M. 1996. Biological Invasions. London: Chapman and Hall.

Willamson, M.H., and K.C. Brown. 1986. The analysis and modelling of British invasion. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Series B. 314:505-522.

Williamson, M., and A. Fitter. 1996. The varying success of invaders. Ecology 77:1661-1666.

Willson, M.F. 1983. Plant Reproductive Ecology. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Wilson, E.O. 1965. The challenge from related species. Pages 7-24 in Baker, H.G., and G. L. Stebbins, eds., The Genetics of Colonizing Species. New York: Academic Press.

Wilson, J.B., G.L. Rapson, M.T. Sykes, A.J. Watkins, and P.A. Williams. 1992. Distributions and climatic correlations of some exotic species along roadsides in South Island, New Zealand. Journal of Biogeography 19:183-194.

Winston, M.L. 1992. Killer bees: The Africanized Honey Bees in the Americas. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Wiser S.K., R.B. Allen, P.W. Clinton, and K.H. Platt. 1998. Community structure and forest invasion by an exotic herb over 23 years. Ecology 79(6):2071-2081.

Wood, T.K., K.L. Olmstead, and S.I. Gutmann. 1990. Insect phenology mediated by host-plant water relations. Evolution 44:629-636.

Wylie, F.R., and R.B. Floyd. 1999. Potential insect threats to plantations of eucalypts and acacias in tropical Asia. Final report. ACIAR project No. 95/124.


Yee, R.S.N., and W.C. Gagne. 1992. Activities and needs of the horticulture industry in relation to alien plant problems in Hawaii. Pages 712-725 in Stone, C.P., C.W. Smith, and J.T. Tunison, eds., Alien Plant Invasions in Native Ecosystems in Hawaii. Management and Research University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii.

Youngs, R.L. 2000. “A right smart little jolt,” Loss of the American chestnut and a way of life. Journal of Forestry 98(2):17-21.


Zedler, P.H., C.R. Gautier, and G.S. McMaster. 1983. Vegetation change in response to extreme events: The effect of a short interval between fires in California chaparral and coastal scrub. Ecology 64:809-818.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement