biotic:

any process or phenomenon that is caused by living organisms.

carrying capacity:

the theoretical maximum number of individuals in a population that can be supported by a defined set of conditions in an environment.

cline:

a geographic gradient in the frequency of a gene.

confamilial:

belonging to the same family.

congeners:

members of the same genus.

congeneric:

referring to members of the same genus.

conspecific:

referring to members of the same species.

cryptogam:

plants and plant-like organisms that do not reproduce with seeds and do not produce flowers, such as ferns, mosses, fungi, and algae.

demographic:

refers to any attribute or process relating to a population.

deterministic growth rate (λ):

a growth rate that has only one outcome as defined by the parameters or conditions under which the population occurs.

diapause:

a state of arrested growth or development, usually applied only to insects.

dichogamy:

flowers that are functionally male first, then develop female structures.

dioecious:

producing male and female structures on two separate plants within the same species.

dioecy:

in plants, the possession of male and female structures on separate individuals.

diploid:

possession of two full sets of genes and two sets of chromosomes; one set from the mother, one from the father.

dsRNA:

double stranded ribonucleic acid.

ectophagous:

feeding on the outside of the host.

endophagous:

feeding on the internal organs or at least within the body of the host.

endophytic:

fungi that reside within plant cells, or plants that live within other plants.

entomophagous:

insect-feeding.

epiphyte:

a plant that grows on another plant nonparasitically, or grows on an object.

establishment:

permanent self-maintenance of a population without additional members arriving through immigration.

exploitation competition:

competition in which resources obtained by one organism, population, or species results in a lowered resource availability to another organism, population, or species.

floras/faunas:

the collective assembly of all plants (floras) or animals (faunas) within a prescribed area and within a prescribed taxonomic group (for example all insect species in the United States).

founder:

an organism which gives rise to a new populations.

genetic drift:

changes in allelic frequency due to sampling error; that is, changes in frequency that result because the genes appearing in offspring are not



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