Development Corporation, Swaziland Irrigation Scheme. In 1998 he became Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. In recognition for his contributions to plant evolutionary biology, Barrett received the E.W. Steacie Memorial Fellowship from the Natural Sciences & Engineering Research Council of Canada. Barrett received his B.S. degree in botany (1971) from the Department of Agricultural Botany, University of Reading, England, and his Ph.D. degree in botany (1977) from the Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley.

PETER L. DEFUR is president of a consulting firm, Environmental Stewardship Concepts, and affiliate associate professor at the Center for Environmental Study at Virginia Commonwealth University. He has extensive experience in risk assessment and ecological risk assessment regulations, guidance, and policy. deFur also worked as Visiting Investigator at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, Maryland. He was a member of the NRC Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology (BEST), and is currently a member of the NRC Subcommittee on the Toxicity of Diisopropyl Methylphosphonate. He serves as chair of the Board of the Science and Environmental Health Network, and president of the Association for Science in the Public Interest. In 1994–1996 deFur served on the NRC Committee on Risk Characterization. He received his B.S. and M.S. degrees in biology (1972 and 1977, respectively) from The College of William and Mary, and his Ph.D. also in biology (1980) from the University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

WILLIAM L. MACDONALD is a professor of plant pathology and environmental microbiology at West Virginia University. He is nationally recognized for his expertise is in the field of forest pathology, particularly fungus diseases of hardwoods (Dutch elm disease, Oak wilt, Chestnut blight). A major focus of his research has been the study of the biology of hypovirulence for use in biological control in a forest setting. Prior to his appointment as professor in 1983, MacDonald was an assistant professor (1971–1976) and associate professor (1977–1982) at West Virginia University. He received his B.A. degree in 1965 from Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, and a Ph.D. degree from Iowa State University. MacDonald is treasurer and member of the Board of the American Chestnut Foundation.

LAURENCE VINCENT MADDEN is professor at the Department of Plant Pathology and Environment, Graduate Studies Program, Ohio State University. He has extensive expertise in plant diseases caused by fungi and viruses, disease impact on crop losses, modeling of plant disease epidemics, and vector-pathogens relations. In 1996–97 he was president of the American Phytopathological Society. Madden is involved in many interdisciplinary projects with other plant pathologists and plant scientists focusing on better understand and managing plant diseases. He received his B.S. degree in biology (1975), M.S. degree in



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