Index

A

Abiotic forces, general, 2, 5, 6, 12, 42, 52-54, 79, 83, 93, 105, 110, 149

see also Climate and weather; Ecosystem effects; Geographic factors; Spatial distribution

hydrology, 1, 7, 95, 98, 101, 103, 104

light, 70, 87-88, 103

Aesthetic values, 7, 14, 103, 105

see also Landscaping and gardening

Age distribution, 4-5, 44, 48

Agricultural Research Service, 126

Agriculture, 7, 14, 15, 38, 64, 94, 105, 108, 112, 133-134, 137, 145

committee study methodology, 2

cost of crop damage/control measures, 1, 2, 15, 95

forest interfaces, 101

pathogens, 25-26

trade liberalization, 17

Air transport, 29, 40

Alang alang, 104

Algae, 98, 99

Allee effects, 43, 47-48, 75, 84

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)

committee recommendations, 10-11, 143-145

foreign trade controls, 15-17, 144-145

introductions, 15, 128-131, 132, 133-134, 144

Port Information Network, 4, 10, 32-37, 39, 143-144

quarantine measures, 23, 25, 33, 62, 91, 111

risk assessments, 8, 10-11, 13, 15-16, 127- 134, 143-145

Argentine ants, 46

Arid ecosystems, 6, 26, 32, 66, 83, 93, 103

Artemisia tridentata, 103

Arthropods, see Insects

Australia, 43, 55, 61, 91, 99, 101, 109, 112, 113, 116, 133, 134-137, 150

B

Beech bark disease, 106

Big sagebrush, 103

Biodiversity, 6-7, 59, 85-89, 94, 100, 102-103

see also Competition

Biological control, 9, 16, 20, 99, 108-109, 135, 141-143, 149

see also Natural enemies

Allee effects, 47

climate-matching, 114

establishment and, 41, 42, 47, 51, 63, 74

nontarget species, 16, 108-109

virulence, 99



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Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests Index A Abiotic forces, general, 2, 5, 6, 12, 42, 52-54, 79, 83, 93, 105, 110, 149 see also Climate and weather; Ecosystem effects; Geographic factors; Spatial distribution hydrology, 1, 7, 95, 98, 101, 103, 104 light, 70, 87-88, 103 Aesthetic values, 7, 14, 103, 105 see also Landscaping and gardening Age distribution, 4-5, 44, 48 Agricultural Research Service, 126 Agriculture, 7, 14, 15, 38, 64, 94, 105, 108, 112, 133-134, 137, 145 committee study methodology, 2 cost of crop damage/control measures, 1, 2, 15, 95 forest interfaces, 101 pathogens, 25-26 trade liberalization, 17 Air transport, 29, 40 Alang alang, 104 Algae, 98, 99 Allee effects, 43, 47-48, 75, 84 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) committee recommendations, 10-11, 143-145 foreign trade controls, 15-17, 144-145 introductions, 15, 128-131, 132, 133-134, 144 Port Information Network, 4, 10, 32-37, 39, 143-144 quarantine measures, 23, 25, 33, 62, 91, 111 risk assessments, 8, 10-11, 13, 15-16, 127- 134, 143-145 Argentine ants, 46 Arid ecosystems, 6, 26, 32, 66, 83, 93, 103 Artemisia tridentata, 103 Arthropods, see Insects Australia, 43, 55, 61, 91, 99, 101, 109, 112, 113, 116, 133, 134-137, 150 B Beech bark disease, 106 Big sagebrush, 103 Biodiversity, 6-7, 59, 85-89, 94, 100, 102-103 see also Competition Biological control, 9, 16, 20, 99, 108-109, 135, 141-143, 149 see also Natural enemies Allee effects, 47 climate-matching, 114 establishment and, 41, 42, 47, 51, 63, 74 nontarget species, 16, 108-109 virulence, 99

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Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests “Biological Flora of the British Isles,” 146 “The Biology of Weeds,” 11, 146 Biotic forces, general, 2, 5-8, 11, 21, 54-66, 78- 94 (passim) see also Biological control; Competition; Demographics; Genetics; Evolution; Natural enemies host availability, 5, 7, 53, 54, 55-59, 76, 99, 102, 123, 128 host distribution, 5, 55-59, 122, 128, 129, 131 host specificity, 5, 7, 12, 36, 76, 80, 92, 129, 147-148 mutualists, 5, 54, 65-66, 94 vectors, 5, 20, 54, 62, 65-66, 76, 148 Birds, 6, 85 Brazil, 110 Brazilian pepper tree, 101 Bromus tectorum, 88-89, 102, 103, 107 Buffelgrass, 104 C Cactoblastis cactorum, 108 California, 46, 113 Canada, 51, 53, 90, 114-115, 117, 136-137 Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 11, 146 Cape tulip, 116, 133, 136-137 Centaurea solstitialis, 102 Cheatgrass, 88-89, 102, 103, 107 Chestnut blight fungus, 1, 14, 61, 101, 102, 105-106, 110 Chile, 113 China, 4, 37-38, 34-36, 37-38, 39, 57-58 Climate and weather, 5, 21, 41, 52-53, 54, 75- 76, 112 disasters, 45, 75 greenhouse gases, 104, 110 latitude, 5, 20, 53, 58, 76 matching, 8, 113-115, 128, 129, 131, 134, 136, 138-139 wind, 6, 39, 85, 93 Coccinella septempunctata, 108 Community structure, 13, 48-50, 59, 93-94, 101-102, 106-109, 110, 147 biodiversity, 6-7, 59, 85-89, 94, 100, 102- 103; see also Competition Competition, 5, 6, 7, 16, 41, 62-66, 76, 86-89, 94, 96, 103, 126 exploitation, 62-63 individual effects, 98 interference, 62 isolated habitat, 96 models, 97 Compsilura concinnata, 108 Computer applications see also Databases; Internet climate simulations, 8, 113-115 Cordgrass, 98 Cost factors damage by/control of invasive species, 1, 2, 15, 95 field studies, 125 Cronartium ribicola, 53-54 Crypohonectria parasitica, see Chestnut blight fungus Cryptococcus fagisuga, 106, 148 D Databases, 11, 12 see also Internet Federal noxious weed and seed lists, 28, 144, 149-150 Port Information Network, 4, 10, 32-37, 39, 143-144 U.S. Geological Survey, 146 Demographics, general, 4, 12, 44, 52, 74, 75, 78-79, 82, 97-98, 122, 124, 149 see also Dispersal; Reproductive factors; Spatial distribution age distribution, 4-5, 44, 48 extinction, 42, 44-45, 73-74, 84, 100, 149 founder populations, 41, 45, 50, 51, 53, 67, 72, 73-75 (passim), 89, 122, 149 individual effects, 98 minimum viable population, 42, 43, 82 Department of Agriculture, 2, 126, 143, 145- 151 see also Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Desert ecosystems, see Arid ecosystems Disasters, 45, 75 Dispersal, 6, 12, 19, 21, 59, 80-85, 93-94, 97, 116, 123, 129, 131, 147-148 birds, 6, 39 fruit and fruiting, 6, 7, 68-69, 93-94, 97 genetic factors, 100 gradients, 81 models of, 83-84 pollen and pollination, 6, 7, 65, 66-68, 101, 105

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Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests seeds, 23, 30, 31-32, 61, 69, 93-94, 97, 116, 123, 137, 144 wind, 6, 39, 85 Disturbance, 11, 38, 45, 54, 63, 68, 75, 85, 87, 90, 94, 98, 103, 105, 106, 123, 146- 147 see also Agriculture; Disasters Dormancy, 5, 6, 53, 69, 70, 75, 76, 77, 122, 124 E Economic factors, 1-2, 83 see also Agriculture; Foreign trade; Interstate commerce China, 37, 38 climate-matching, 113-115 damage by/control of invasive species, 1, 2, 15, 95 ecosystem goods and services, 104 gardening sector, 30-31 risk assessment models, 128, 129, 132, 137, 140 tourism sector, 29, 38 Ecosystem effects, 1, 2, 6, 7-8, 11, 15, 16, 18, 103-110, 146-147 see also Biodiversity; Biotic forces, general; Community structure; Disturbance; Forests arid, 6, 26, 32, 66, 83, 93, 103 hydrology, 1, 7, 95, 98, 101, 103, 104 isolated habitats, 96; see also Islands nutrient cycling, 7, 26, 31, 87, 95, 98, 102, 103-104, 105, 107, 110 predictive systems evaluated, 115-116, 118, 139 Education and training, multidisciplinary approaches, 13, 150-151 Elton, Charles, 19 Endangered Species Act, 98 Enemies, see Natural enemies Epidemiology documentation and standardization, 11, 145 multidisciplinary approaches, 13, 150 Establishment, 2, 4-6, 9, 18, 21, 41-94, 145 see also Dispersal biological control and, 41, 42, 47, 51, 63, 74 defined, 41 experiments, 51, 59-59, 86-87, 145 founder populations, 41, 45, 50, 51, 53, 67, 72, 73-75 (passim), 89, 122, 149 insects, 41, 46, 51, 55-64 (passim), 72-74, 76, 77, 79-80, 83 minimum viable population, 42, 43, 82 parasites, 42, 47, 54, 59, 60, 73 pathogens, 43, 53-54, 55, 58, 61-62, 70-72, 77, 81-82 predictive systems, 8, 10-11, 15-16, 17, 111, 122, 131, 138, 142, 144 taxonomy, 42, 52, 56, 60, 66, 76 temporal factors, 45, 68-69, 76, 81, 85, 93 Euphydryas butterfly, 100 Europe, 20, 22, 37-38, 39, 55, 87, 91, 112 gypsy moth, 1, 102, 104-105 insects, other, 24, 34, 53, 56-57, 58, 63-64, 73 rabbits from, biocontrols in Australia, 99 European larch canker, 53 Evolution, 7, 21, 74, 89-93, 98, 100, 105, 109, 110 hybridization, 7, 77, 89, 90-92, 98-99 Experiments and experimental data, 6, 112, 125, 149 establishment, 51, 59-59, 86-87, 145 field screening, 11, 125, 145 selection pressures, 7, 90, 92 Expert judgment, 8-9, 10, 11, 19, 113, 115-116, 117, 137, 138, 142, 146, 149 multidisciplinary approaches, 12-13, 150-151 study committee biographies, 181-185 Exports and imports, see Foreign trade; Travel and tourism F Federal government, 9, 13, 14, 28-29, 145-151 see also Legislation Department of Agriculture, 2, 126, 143, 145-151; see also Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Geological Survey, 146 National Invasive Species Council, 150 National parks, 7, 106 noxious weed and seed lists, 28, 144, 149- 150 Fire ants, 46, 101 Fires, 7, 45, 75, 88-89, 95, 110 Fish and fisheries, 98, 103, 108 Florida, 101 Flowers and flowering, 6, 21, 68-69, 117 cape tulip, 116, 133, 136-137 pollen and pollination, 6, 7, 65, 66-68, 101, 105

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Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests Foreign trade, 3, 8, 15-17, 19, 22, 24-25, 29-40 see also Introductions; Ships and Shipping; Travel and tourism; specific countries APHIS controls, 15-17, 144-145 Port Information Network, 4, 10, 32-37, 39, 143-144 Internet-based, 4, 31, 39 trade liberalization, 17 travel and tourism, 3, 15, 19, 25, 29, 38-39 World Trade Organization, 16-17 Forests, 6, 37, 53, 57-58, 63, 64, 87, 101, 102, 104, 105 chestnut blight fungus, 1, 14, 61, 101, 102, 105-106, 110 gypsy moths, 1, 102, 104-105 pine trees, 66, 103 Founder populations, 41, 45, 50, 51, 53, 67, 72, 73-75 (passim), 89, 122, 149 Fruit and fruiting, 6, 7, 68-69, 93-94, 97 Fungi, 3, 20, 22, 55, 65, 100, 106, 148 chestnut blight fungus, 1, 14, 61, 101, 102, 105-106, 110 rust, 19, 20, 53-54, 70 G Gardening, see Landscaping and gardening; Nurseries Genetics, 4-7 (passim), 11, 45-46, 56-57, 71, 74-75, 77, 94, 98-100, 109-110, 145 see also Evolution; Reproductive factors Allee effects, 43, 47-48, 75, 84 host specificity, 5, 7, 12, 36, 71, 76, 80, 92, 129, 147-148 hybridization, 7, 77, 89, 90-92, 98-99 phenotypic plasticity, 5, 45, 75, 77, 89, 91, 116, 146 phylogeny and traits, 76, 77, 89, 91, 118- 119, 139, 146 predictive systems evaluated, 115-116, 117 sleeper species, 90 The Genetics of Colonizing Species, 116 Geographic factors, 5, 6, 9, 14, 18, 39, 49-50, 78, 96, 102 see also Dispersal; Spatial distribution climate-matching, 113-115 committee study methodology, 17 formula to assess impact, 97 isolated habitats, 96; see also Islands latitude, 5, 20, 53, 58, 76 predictive systems evaluated, 112-115, 141- 142, 145, 146, 147-148 Geological Survey, 146 Grazers, 26, 54, 61 Greenhouse gases, 104, 110 Gypsy moths, 1, 83, 102, 104-105 H Harmonia axyyridis, 108 Hawaii, 21, 103 Health, human, 137 Hesperis matronalis, 90 Homeria miniata, 116, 133, 136-137 Horticulture, see Landscaping and gardening Host availability, 5, 7, 53, 54, 55-59, 76, 99, 102, 123, 128 Host distribution, 5, 55-59, 76, 122, 128, 129, 131 Host specificity, 5, 7, 12, 36, 71, 76, 80, 92, 129, 147-148 Hybrids and hybridization, 7, 77, 89, 90-92, 98- 99 Hydrology, 1, 7, 95, 98, 101, 103, 104 Hypericum perforatum, 109 I Imperata cylindrica, 104 Imports and exports, see Foreign trade; Travel and tourism Insecticides, 79 APHIS border controls, 15-16 geographic factors, 9 historical perspectives, 3, 20, 21 suburban areas, 1 Insects, 4, 5, 14, 99-100, 101, 104, 108, 112 see also Pollen and pollination committee study methodology, 2 establishment, 41, 46, 51, 55-64 (passim), 72-74, 76, 77, 79-80, 83 gypsy moths, 1, 83, 102, 104-105 introduction, 23-25, 27-28, 34, 39, 108-109, 122-124; see also Natural enemies life tables, 79 predator-prey relationship, 5, 61; see also Natural enemies reproductive factors, 72-73, 77, 122-123 vectors, 5, 20, 54, 62, 65-66, 76, 148

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Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests Interdisciplinary approaches, see Multidisciplinary approaches International Plant Protection Convention, 17, 133, 141 Internet intentional introduction of invasive species, 4, 31, 39 literature on natural history of species, 11, 146 Introductions, 2, 3, 8, 12, 19-40, 113, 119, 125, 138, 142 see also Biological control; Dispersal; Foreign trade; Natural enemies; Seeds; Travel and tourism accidental, 3, 17-18, 20-26, 29-30, 39-40, 59 APHIS controls, 15, 128-131, 132, 133-134, 144 Port Information Network (PIN), 4, 10, 32-37, 39, 143-144 founder populations, 41, 45, 50, 51, 53, 67, 72, 73-75 (passim), 89, 122, 149 insects, 23-25, 27-28, 34, 39, 108-109, 122- 124; see also Natural enemies intentional, 4, 6, 11, 12, 16, 17-18, 20, 21- 22, 26-28, 30-32, 38 Internet as vehicle, 4, 31, 39 see also Landscaping and gardening; Travel and tourism multiple, 4, 7, 50, 58, 61, 71, 91, 93, 95, 97, 104-106, 119, 148 pathogens, 25-26, 27-28, 39, 121-122 taxonomy, 34, 37 temporal factors, 8, 90, 93, 107, 124 Islands, 21, 86, 96 Australia, 43, 55, 61, 91, 99, 101, 109, 112, 113, 116, 133, 134-137, 150 Hawaii, 21, 103 New Guinea, 61 New Zealand, 87 J Jadera haemotoloma, 100 Japan, 34-36 Journal of Ecology, 146 K Karibaweed, 148 L Lachnellula wilkommii, 53 Ladybird beetles, 101 Landscape, 52 see also Aesthetic values Landscaping and gardening, 4, 30-31, 66, 101, 137, 145, 149 see also Nurseries Lantana, 148 Leafhoppers, 85-86 Legislation Endangered Species Act, 98 International Plant Protection Convention, 17, 133, 141 Plant Quarantine Act, 23, 25 Life-history traits, 8, 12, 42, 43, 66-74, 77, 80, 82, 89, 98, 109, 115-119, 122, 125- 126, 145, 147-148 see also Flowers and flowering; Fruit and fruiting; Reproductive factors dormancy, 5, 6, 53, 69, 70, 75, 76, 77, 122, 124 light requirements, 70, 87-88, 103 seed production, 69, 137 Life tables, 79 Light requirements, 70, 87-88, 103 Linepithema humile, 46 Lythrum salicaria, 91 M Madagascar, 104 Maine, 53 Marine invertebrates, 98 Massachusetts, 104 Mediterranean Basin, 113 Melaleuca, 103, 148 Mexico, 104, 108 Mimosa pigra, 43, 101 Minimum viable population, 42, 43, 82 Models, see Simulations and models Moran effect, 48 Multidisciplinary approaches, 12-13, 150-151 Multiple introductions, 4, 7, 50, 58, 61, 71, 91, 93, 95, 97, 104-106, 119, 148 Mutualists, 5, 54, 65-66, 94 pollen and pollination, 6, 7, 65, 66-68, 101, 105; see also Dispersal Myrica faya, 103 Myxoma virus, 99

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Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests N National parks, 7, 106 Natural disasters, see Disasters Natural enemies, 5, 41, 54-55, 59-62, 64-65, 76, 79-80, 96, 107, 108-109, 122 see also Biological control multiple introductions, 104 nontarget species, 16, 108-109 Naturalization, see Establishment Nectria coccinea, 106 New Guinea, 61 New York State, 66 New Zealand, 87 Nurseries, 4 Nutrient cycling, 7, 26, 31, 87, 95, 98, 102, 103-104, 105, 107, 110 O Opuntia aurantiaca, 90 Oryctolagus cuniculus, 99 P Parasites and parasitoids, 1, 14, 33, 79-80, 86, 99, 105 establishment, 42, 47, 54, 59, 60, 73 Pathogens, 5, 6, 14, 100, 101, 104, 105, 126, 142-143, 147-148 see also Fungi; terms beginning “Host” APHIS, 4, 144 biological control, 99 committee study methodology, 2 dispersal, 81-82 establishment, 43, 53-54, 55, 58, 61-62, 70- 72, 77, 81-82 geographic factors, 9, 96 historical perspectives, 3 hybridization, 99 introductions, 25-26, 27-28, 39, 121-122 natural enemies, 61-62 reproductive factors, 70, 77, 122-123, 147- 148 vectors, 5, 20, 54, 62, 65-66, 76, 148 virulence, 5, 56, 61-62, 70, 71, 99 Pennisetum ciliare, 104 Persistence, see Establishment Pesticides see also Insecticides regulatory issues, 109 Phytophthora ramorum, 55 PIN, see Port Information Network Pine trees, 66, 103 Plantago lanceolata, 100 Plant Quarantine Act, 23, 25 Political factors, 132, 145-146 Pollen and pollination, 6, 7, 65, 66-68, 101, 105 Port Information Network (PIN), 4, 10, 32-37, 39, 143-144 Predator-prey relationship, 5, 54, 61, 96, 105, 107 see also Natural enemies isolated habitat, 96 models, 97, 126 Professional training, see Education and training Public opinion, see Political factors Puccinia graminis, 55 Purple loosestrife, 91 Q Qualitative analysis, 8, 74, 77, 108, 127, 128- 135 (passim), 134-135, 136, 142 see also Expert judgment Quarantine measures, 23, 25, 33, 62, 91, 111, 134 R Regulatory issues, 8, 12, 13, 15, 21, 109, 127, 147 see also Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service; Standards and standardization pesticides, 109 quarantine measures, 23, 25, 33, 62, 91, 111, 134 World Trade Organization, 16-17 Reproductive factors, 44-45, 74, 78, 112, 116, 137 see also Demographics; Genetics Allee effects, 43, 47-48, 75, 84 insects, 72-73, 77, 122-123 minimum viable population, 42, 43, 82 pathogens, 70, 77, 122-123, 147-148 plants, 66-68, 77, 122-123; see also Flowers and flowering; Fruit and fruiting; Pollen and pollination; Seeds

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Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests Risk assessment, 8-9, 18, 126-138, 139-140, 147 see also Experiments and experimental data; Expert judgment; Qualitative analysis APHIS, 8, 10-11, 13, 15-16, 127-134, 143- 145 defined, 127 economic factors, 128, 129, 132, 137, 140 introduction, 28-40 World Trade Organization, 16-17 Root systems, 3, 7, 24, 31, 34, 55, 62, 67, 85, 88, 98, 106 S Saint John’s wort, 109 Salvina molesta, 148 Sampling, Port Information Network (PIN), 10, 143-144 Schinus terebinthifolius, 101 Seeds, 23, 30, 31-32, 93-94, 97, 116, 123, 144 see also Dispersal natural enemies, 61 production phase, 69, 137 Ships and shipping, 24 containers, 3, 29-30, 40 Port Information Network, 4, 10, 32-37, 39, 143-144 Simulations and models, 97, 126-138, 139-140 climate, 8, 113-115, 128, 129, 131, 134, 136, 138-139 community structure, 108 competition, 97 dispersal, 83-84 Singapore, 34-36 Sleeper species, 90 Soapberry bugs, 100 Soil composition, 7, 11, 22, 23, 25, 26, 31, 61, 62, 65, 88, 89, 103, 145 see also Root systems Solenopsis invicta, 46, 101 South Africa, 113 Spartina alterniflora/anglica, 98 Spatial distribution, 4, 5, 6, 18, 42, 48-50, 62, 75, 78, 80, 83-84, 107, 109-110, 128 see also Dispersal; Geographic factors host distribution, 5, 55-59 hybridization, 99 Standards and standardization, 10, 11-12, 13, 150 criteria for predictive systems, 8-9 International Plant Protection Convention, 17, 133, 141 State government, 9, 13 Australia, 133, 134-135 cost of control measures, 14 Statistical analysis, 9, 142-143 see also Simulations and models St. John’s wort, 109 Stochastic forces, 4-5, 6, 9, 41, 42-52, 54, 74- 75, 113, 122, 124 Suburban areas, 1 T Taxonomy, 5-8 (passim), 81, 86, 89, 93, 94, 107 establishment, 42, 52, 56, 60, 66, 76 expertise, 12-13, 150 introduction, 34, 37 predictive systems evaluated, 112, 116-121 (passim), 126, 139, 144, 147, 150 Temporal factors, 107, 109-110 disasters, 45 dispersal, 81 establishment, 45, 68-69, 76, 81, 85, 93 flowering and fruiting, 68-69 introduction to manifestation, 8, 90, 93, 107, 124 Tetroplum fuscum, 90 Texas, 101 Trade, see Foreign trade; Interstate commerce; Travel and tourism Tragopogon laitfolia/mirus/miscellus, 91 Traits, 41, 82, 87-89, 99-100, 120, 139 life-history, 8, 12, 42, 43, 66-74, 77, 80, 82, 89, 109, 115-119, 122, 125-126, 145, 147-148 dormancy, 5, 6, 53, 69, 70, 75, 76, 77, 122, 124 light requirements, 70, 87-88, 103 seed production, 69, 137 phylogeny and, 76, 77, 89, 91, 118-119, 139, 146 Travel and tourism, 29, 38-39 APHIS controls, 15 historical perspectives, 3, 19, 25

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Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests U Urban areas, 1 V Vascular plants, general, 6, 18-19, 32, 37, 56, 98, 102 Port Information Network, 10, 144 Vectors, 5, 20, 54, 62, 65-66, 76, 148 Virulence, 5, 56, 61-62, 70, 71 biological controls, 99 Visual quality, see Aesthetic values W Weather, see Climate and weather West Virginia, 104-105 White pine blister rust, 53-54 Wind, 6, 39, 85, 93 Woody plants and products, 3, 8, 24, 34, 73, 130 see also Forests World Trade Organization, 16-17 World Wide Web, see Internet The World’s Worst Weeds, 112