Index

A

Accessibility

assessment factors, 110-111

measurement, 92-96

ACS. See American Community Survey

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 109

American Community Survey (ACS), 138-139, 155

American FactFinder, 146, 155

Areal interpolation, 90

Areal weighting, 90

Attachment to place, 65

Aurora Partnership, 108

Authority constraints, 61-62

Autocorrelation, spatial, 91

Availability, of data, 48

B

BEA. See Bureau of Economic Analysis

BLM. See Bureau of Land Management

BLS. See Bureau of Labor Statistics

Bruntland Commission, 23

BTS. See Bureau of Transportation Statistics

Built environments, structure, institutions, and agency in, 64-65

Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), 138, 156

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 138, 157

Bureau of Land Management (BLM), 78, 80, 144, 149, 164

Bureau of the Census, 82, 138, 153-155, 164

American Community Survey, 138-139, 155

decennial Census, 138, 141, 154

Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates, 163

Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), 1, 138, 157-158

C

Cadastral data, 139, 164

California, Smart Investment plan in, 24

Capability constraints, 18, 61

Capacity constraints, 18

Census 2000, 146.

See also Bureau of the Census

Chicago, Illinois, early transportation studies in, 104

City of Richmond, British Columbia, Pedestrian Friendly Streets, 39

Community

as three integrated spheres, 34



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Index A Accessibility assessment factors, 110-111 measurement, 92-96 ACS. See American Community Survey American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 109 American Community Survey (ACS), 138-139, 155 American FactFinder, 146, 155 Areal interpolation, 90 Areal weighting, 90 Attachment to place, 65 Aurora Partnership, 108 Authority constraints, 61-62 Autocorrelation, spatial, 91 Availability, of data, 48 B BEA. See Bureau of Economic Analysis BLM. See Bureau of Land Management BLS. See Bureau of Labor Statistics Bruntland Commission, 23 BTS. See Bureau of Transportation Statistics Built environments, structure, institutions, and agency in, 64-65 Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), 138, 156 Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 138, 157 Bureau of Land Management (BLM), 78, 80, 144, 149, 164 Bureau of the Census, 82, 138, 153-155, 164 American Community Survey, 138-139, 155 decennial Census, 138, 141, 154 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates, 163 Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), 1, 138, 157-158 C Cadastral data, 139, 164 California, Smart Investment plan in, 24 Capability constraints, 18, 61 Capacity constraints, 18 Census 2000, 146. See also Bureau of the Census Chicago, Illinois, early transportation studies in, 104 City of Richmond, British Columbia, Pedestrian Friendly Streets, 39 Community as three integrated spheres, 34

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as three interconnected spheres, 33 as three separate spheres, 33 as a web of relations among spheres, 35 community demonstration projects, NSDI, 164-165 objectives and associated indicators, 43 Competitive connections, economic trade and, 72 Complementary connections, economic trade and, 72 Connectedness, 55-74 between places, 71-74 Constraints, 18 authority, 61 capability, 61 coupling, 61 Control zones, 91 Cost, of state and local government data, 143 Coupling constraints, 18, 61 Cross-organization decision making, 14 Crosscutting measures of livability ecological footprint, 27 mutual interdependence of livability dimensions, 6 D Data access to data and analytical tools, 146-148 analysis tools, 131-150 availability, 137-148 cadastral data, 139, 164 collected by communities and smaller-level governments, 146 data needed by communities, 1-5 data sharing among federal agencies, 8-9 federal data for local decision making, 133 federal government data, 138-143 private data, 145-146 reliability constraints, 48 state and local government data, 143-146 Decision-support process, 103-127 changes in the transportation planning process, 107-112 current transportation planning process, 106 decision process framework, 112-113 decisions resolving conflicting ideas, 113-114 information needs of decision makers, 122-125 long-range planning, 106-107 project planning, 107 promoting cross-organizational planning, 14 regional basis for decision making, 114-119 role of public involvement in decision process, 119-120 Decision-support tools, 120-122 basic information handling support, 121 decision analysis support, 121 designing for the diverse stakeholders, 8 group reasoning support, 121 micro, decision strategy phases, 122 Dependence spatial, 91 temporal, 91 Design Center for American Urban Landscape, 134-135 Livable Community tool, 136 Detroit, Michigan, early transportation studies in, 104 Digital Aerial Images, 135 Digital Line Graph (DLG) hydrography data , 165 Digital Orthophotos, 135 Disenfranchisement, 51 DLG. See Digital Line Graph hydrography data DOC. See U.S. Department of Commerce Dodge-Polk, 145 DOI. See U.S. Department of the Interior DOL. See U.S. Department of Labor DOT. See U.S. Department of Transportation E Eastern Planning Initiative (EPI), 40-42 Ecological fallacy, 88 Ecological footprint, 27 Ecological framework methodology, 116-118 Economic trade and competitive connections, 72 and complementary connections, 72

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Eisenhower Interstate Highway System, 104 Elevation, 139, 164 Employee Statistics 202 (ES202 ), 143-144, 149 EnviroMapper, 160 Environmental accidents, 49 Environmental quality of life, 6 with changes in the transportation planning process, 111 Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), 135 Envision Utah, 28-30 EPA. See U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPI. See Eastern Planning Initiative Errors, in measurement, 47 ESRI. See Environmental Systems Research Institute European Sustainability Index Project, 32 Expectation-maximation algorithm, 90 Exurban expansion, 25 F Fannie Mae Location Efficient Mortgage, 38 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), 135 Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC), 78, 141, 153, 164 Federal government data, 7, 138-143 lack of appreciation for sources of, 133 limited availability of, 141 missing, 142 obtaining reliable, 133 organization of federal statistical system, 133 paradox of state and local government data, 144-145 provision programs, 153-165 restricted access to, 142 scales of, 140 timeliness of, 141-142 uncoordinated, 142-143 understanding, 133 using for local decision making, 133 Federal Highways Administration (FHWA), 107, 109, 111, 116, 118, 142 Federal Railroads Administration, 142 Federal statistical system, organization of, 133 Federal Transit Administration (FTA), 107, 111 FedStat Task Force, 138, 163 MapStats, 163 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates, 163 FEMA. See Federal Emergency Management Agency FGDC. See Federal Geographic Data Committee FHWA. See Federal Highways Administration FirstGov, 164 Fort Collins, Colorado, geographic units in, 82-83 Freedom of Information Act, 142 “Freeway revolts,” 5 FTA. See Federal Transit Administration FWS. See U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service G GASB. See Government Accounting Standards Board Gateway to Global Change Information, 163 GDP. See Gross Domestic Product Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), 36 GeoData Alliance, 7, 141 Geodetic control, 139, 164 Geographic boundaries, arbitrary, 82-83 Geographic Information System (GIS) data, 8, 12-13, 51, 62, 78, 80-81, 88-89, 107, 125, 135-136 Maps Overlay and Statistical System, 80 Geographic units, arbitrary, 83-92 ecological fallacy, 88 incompatible data units, 90-91 multiple areal unit problem, 84-88 Geography Network, 146-147 GIS. See Geographic Information System Global Change Information, 163 Globalization, 64 “Golden triad,” 32-34 Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB), 124-125 Government roles in transportation planning, 8-9 Governmental units, 139, 164 GPI. See Genuine Progress Indicator

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Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, 78-81 Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 6, 35, 49 Group reasoning support, 121 H Heterogeneity, spatial, 91-92 History and place, 17, 57 Home, importance in identifying place, 60 Horizontal characteristics of place, 56 HUD. See U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Hydrography, 139, 164 I Incompatible data units, 90-91 Indicators of livability, 3-4, 34-52 appropriate scale of analysis, 44-46 associated with community objectives, 43 data availability and reliability constraints, 48 historical lessons about selecting, 45-46 in practice, 43-52 interpretation of, 48-50 new-generation, 37 politics of use, 51-52 single sphere versus crosscutting measures, 47-48 selection, 45-46 social, economic, and environmental, 49 statistical measurement errors, 47 traditional place-based, 36 weighted, 50-51 Individualistic fallacy, 88 Inferential statistics, spatial-temporal data and, 91-92 Information handling, 121 Information needs of decision makers, 122-125 Institutions, in natural, built, and social environments, 64-65 Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), 160 Interagency sources Federal Geographic Data Committee, 78, 141, 153, 164 FedStat Task Force, 138, 163 National Hydrography Dataset, 162, 165 National Spatial Data Infrastructure, 78, 139, 141, 164 U.S. Interagency Working Group on Sustainable Development Indicators, 165 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), 105, 109, 116 Intermodal Transportation Database (ITDB), 157-158 Transportation Data Links option, 158 Internet, 12, 78, 146 communication via, 18 Interpolation, areal, 90 Interstate Highway System, 5, 104 IRIS. See Integrated Risk Information System ISTEA. See Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act ITDB. See Intermodal Transportation Database L Lackawanna Watershed, Pennsylvania, flood mitigation and environmental management in, 165 Large scale, 140 “Legibility,” 69-71 LEM. See Location Efficient Mortgage Limited availability, of federal government data, 141 Linkages between places, 71 common experience of political places, 73 economic trade and competitive connections, 72 economic trade and complementary connections, 72 movement of capital, 72-73 personal travel, 72 Livability, 3, 23-52, 110-111 concept of, 23-27 the economy, 32-34 the environment, 32-34 environment and quality of life, 111 “golden triad,” 32-34 indicators of, 27-32, 34-52 key dimensions of, 5-6, 32-34 measurement and analysis of, 77-97

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mobility and access for people and goods, 110 new generation indicators, 37 social well-being, 32-34 system performance and preservation, 110-111 why livability matters, 23-32 Livability Communities Initiative, 24, 34 Livability planning and scale, 7 “Lived-in” territories, 70 Local government. See State and local government data Location Efficient Mortgage (LEM), 38 Long-range planning, 106-107 M Major investment study (MIS), 111 Maps Overlay and Statistical System, 80 MapStats, 163 MAUP. See Modifiable area unit problem Measurement errors, 47 Measurement of accessibility, 92-96 space-time accessibility, 93-96 space-time prism, 94 Measurement of livability, 77-97 developing place-based indicators, 81-92 single sphere versus crosscutting, 47-48 Measurement, time of, 89-90 Metadata, 148 Metamodels, 148 MetroGIS, 135 Metropolitan planning organizations (MPO), 14, 107, 114, 132 Miami-Dade, Florida, 79th Street corridor revitalization in, 24 Minnesota’s North Metro I-35W Corridor Coalition, 134-137 Minority communities, 26 MIS. See Major investment study Mississippi Delta, 116-118 Mobility in the transportation planning process, 110 Modifiable area unit problem (MAUP), 84-85 Moline, Illinois, Renew Moline, 27 Movement authority constraints, 61-62 capability constraints, 61 coupling constraints, 61 in and out, 67-68 in time and space, 60-62 of capital, 72-73 through places, 19 space-time paths, 61 MPO. See Metropolitan planning organizations Multiplicity of places and scales, 59 N National Atlas, 161-162 National Cooperative Soil Survey Program (NRCS), 158-159 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 14, 105, 107 National Geodetic Survey, 164 National Geographic, 147 National Hydrography Dataset (NHD), 162, 165, 176 National Partnership for Reinventing Government, 141, 164 National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), 78, 139, 141, 164 cadastral data, 139, 164 Community Demonstration Projects, 164-165 elevation, 139, 164 executive order, 142 geodetic control, 139, 164 governmental units, 139, 164 hydrography, 139, 164 ortho-imagery, 139, 164 transportation, 139, 164 National Water Information System (NWIS), 162 National Wetlands Inventory (NWI), 139, 161 “Natural Amenities” Index, 35 Natural environments role of, 16-17 structure, institutions, and agency in, 64-65 Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), 141, 158-159, 164 Natural Resources Defense Council, 38 NCSS. See National Cooperative Soil Survey Program (NRCS) NEPA. See National Environmental Policy Act Networks, nodes in, 57-60

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Nodes, in place networks, 59-60 North Metro I-35W Corridor Coalition, 134-137 NSDI. See National Spatial Data Infrastructure O Occupancy at different scales, 18 Office of Management and Budget, 133 “OneDOT” program, 142 Ortho-imagery, 139, 164 P Pace of place change, 17 “Paralysis by analysis,” 51 Partnerships with state and local governments, 8-9 Path dependence, 17 Pedestrian Friendly Streets, 39 People and place, 55-67 interactions between, 18-19 moving through places, 19 natural, built, and social environments, 63-65 place and community, 18-19, 66-67 place as territory and place as people, 55-57 places as groups of nodes in networks, 57-60 political places, 62-63 reading and using places, 18 rural places, 65-66 sense of place, 18 occupancy at different scales, 18 time geography and movement in time and space, 60-62 time-geography and place-scale definition, 18 Place, 16-18, 55-74 attachment to, 65 and boundaries, 17-18 and community, 18-19, 66-67 connections between places, 71-74 defining, 16 as groups of nodes in networks, 57-60 horizontal and vertical characteristics of, 56 kinds of linkages between, 71 and livability at multiple scales, 19 pace of change in, 17 reading and using, 18 role of history in, 17, 57 role of structure, institutions, and agency in, 17 role of the natural environment in, 16-17 and scale, 16 and space connections between places, 71-74 spatial dependence, 16 as territory, 55-57 and time, 67-71 Place-based indicators, 81-92 arbitrary geographic boundaries, 82-83 arbitrary geographic units, 83-92 Political jurisdictions, 62-63 common experience of, 73 Population choice, 69 movement, 67-68 Position-aware technologies, 89 Potential path area, 94 Potential path space, 94 Potential path tree, 95 Private data, 145-146 Project planning, 107 Public data, useful for decision making, 8 Public involvement in decision process, role of, 119-120 Q Quality, of state and local government data, 144 Quality Growth Efficiency Tools (QGET), 29 Quality Growth Strategy, 29-30 “Quality of life,” 23-24 Query Mapper, 160 QuickFacts, 155 R “Reading” places, 18 Refusal, of state and local government data, 143-144

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Regional decision making, 84, 114-119 actors in transportation decision making, 115-119 ecological framework methodology, 116-118 the Mississippi Delta, 116-118 Regional Economic Information System (REIS), 156 Regional identity, 73-74 Reliability of data, 48 of federal data, 133 Remediation, 36 Remote sensing, 91 Restricted access, to federal government data, 142 Rio Earth Summit, 31 Rural places, 65-66 S Santa Monica, California, “sustainable cities” program, 27 Scales of analysis, 44-46 of federal government data, 140 of livability assessment, 4-5 Seattle, Washington, Sustainable Seattle, 39 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates, 163 Small scale, 140 Smart Growth, 24, 165 “Social capital,” 18 Social Indicators Movement, 23 Social well-being, 11, 32-34 Soil Survey Geographic database (NRCS), 159 Space connections between places, 71-74 kinds of linkages between places, 71 regional identity, 73-74 Space-time accessibility, 93-96 paths, 61 prism, 94 Spatial autocorrelation, 91 Spatial dependence, 16, 91 Spatial heterogeneity, 91-92 Spatial-temporal data, and inferential statistics, 91-92 Species endangerment, 31 Standards, for state and local government data, 144 State and local government data, 143-145 cost, 143 federal paradox, 144-145 inability, 144 lack of standards, 144 no data, 144 quality, 144 refusal, 143-144 standards, 144 State Departments of Transportation, 14 Statistics inferential, spatial-temporal data and, 91-92 and measurement errors, 47 Structures and institutions, 64-65 Suburban expansion, 25 Sustainability, 23 local agenda 21 projects, 31 measures of, 24 System performance and preservation to assess livability impacts, 110-111 T TEA-21. See Transportation and Equity Act for the Twenty-First Century Technological developments, 12 Technologies, position-aware, 89 Temporal dependence, 91 time of measurement, 89-90 spatial-temporal data and inferential statistics, 91-92 Thomas Jefferson District Planning Council, 39 Thomas Jefferson Sustainability Council, 39 Eastern Planning Initiative Tiebout Model, 114-115 Time and place, 67-71 changing populations changing minds over time, 69 changing populations moving in and out over time, 67-68 legal interactions between time and place, 69-71 Time geography authority constraints, 61-62 capability constraints, 61 coupling constraints, 61

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and movement in time and space, 60-62 and place-scale definition, 18 space-time paths, 61 Timeliness, of federal government data, 141-142 Trade-offs, 6, 11 Transportation and Equity Act for the Twenty-First Century (TEA-21), 109, 118 Transportation planning, 139, 164 actors in decision making, 115-119 assessing impacts on livability, 110-111 changes in process, 107-112 current process employed, 106 environment and quality of life, 111 government roles in, 8-9 Travel, personal, 72 Tucson, Arizona, pedestrian-oriented, mixed-use development in, 27 U Uncoordinated data, 142-143 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 35, 158-159 “Natural Amenities” Index, 35 Natural Resources Conservation Service, 141, 158-159,164 U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC), 154-156 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), 156-157 Research Maps, 156 Urban Research Monitor, 157 USER database, 157 U.S. Department of Labor (DOL), 157 U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), 161-162 U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), 1, 14, 118, 142, 149, 157-158, 164 Intermodal Transportation Database, 157-158 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 39, 116, 118, 159-160 Envirofacts database, 160 Information Resources Center, 159 Integrated Risk Information System, 160 Window to My Environment, 160 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), 161 National Wetlands Inventory (NWI), 139, 161 U.S. Forest Service (USFS), 176 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 141-142, 161-162 Digital Aerial Images, 135 Digital Line Graph hydrography data, 165 Hydrology Division, 162 National Atlas, 161-162 National Water Information System, 162 U.S. Global Charge Research Program (USGCRP), 163 U.S. Interagency Working Group on Sustainable Development Indicators (SDI Group), 165 U.S. White House Task Force on Livable Communities, 24, 27, 34 V Vertical characteristics of place, 56 W Weighted indicators, 50-51 Weighting, areal, 90 Western Governors’ Association, 144, 149 Wilderness Society, The, 80 Window to My Environment, 160 Z Zoning, 5