The food guide pyramid, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

SOURCE: http://www.nal.usda.gov:8001/py/pmap.htm.

current nutritional guidelines. A primary source for this review is the AHRQ Evidence Report on the Efficacy of Interventions to Modify Dietary Behavior Related to Cancer Risk: Final Evidence Report (hereafter referred to as the AHRQ Diet Report) (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2001a). Also reviewed are selected studies published from 1975 to 2000, a meta-analysis of studies of psychosocial factors and dietary change (Baranowski et al., 1999; Willett, 1995, 1999) and a NCI-sponsored review of the 5 A Day for Better Health Program (http://dccps.nci.nih.gov/5ad_1_intro.html).

Tables 4.4 and 4.5 summarize information from the AHRQ evidence report for fruits and vegetable (Table 4.4) and dietary fat (Table 4.5) intake. Interested readers are referred to the full report for an in-depth description of the study methods and rationale for data synthesis approaches. Results across 45 studies (12 for fruits and vegetables, 33 for dietary fat) are reported as median differences in percentage change in outcome. Thus, the numbers in the tables do not represent absolute changes in numbers of servings (fruits and vegetables) or percentage of energy from fat. For example, the median difference in percentage change in fruits and vegetables of +16.6 translates into an increase of approxi-



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